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Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update

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Dr. Susan C. Jones Professor of Entomology
The Ohio State University College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences

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Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update

  1. 1. Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update Dr. Susan C. Jones Professor of Entomology
  2. 2. The Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) • Insects (true bugs) • Typically feed at night • Feed only on blood • Prefer to feed on humans • Alternate hosts: rodents, bats, birds, pets (cats, dogs, etc.) Not caused by bad housekeeping!! BED BUGS CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE! • Cause significant economic, physical, & mental distress
  3. 3. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 37 84 167 2 305 Hamilton Co. Public Health Dept.1,2 Cincinnati Health Dept.3 2003 & 2004 reporting system instituted 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 2006 2007 2008 1,101 ~10 724 bed bug inspection program suspended * Represent a small fraction of overall bed bug infestations in area. 1Verified to be bed bugs. 2 Data courtesy of Greg Kesterman. 3Data courtesy of Camille Jones. SW Ohio Bed Bug Complaints* Bed Bug Make Their Way to Ohio
  4. 4. OSU’s Ohio Statewide Bed Bug Surveys (2011 and 2016) • Survey regarding bed bug-related issues emailed or mailed to pest management companies and individuals licensed to treat for bed bugs in Ohio – 2011 survey • Response Rate = 225/632 = 35.6% – 2016 survey • Response Rate = 329/1041 = 31.6%
  5. 5. Franklin Butler Hamilton OSU Survey: Number of Bed Bug Treatments 2005 Cuyahoga Cleveland Cincinnati Columbus Toledo Dayton Akron Canton Stark Lucas • Hamilton • Franklin • Butler, Lucas, & Cuyahoga Top 3 counties for bed bugs:
  6. 6. OSU Survey: Number of Bed Bug Treatments 2011 Hamilton Franklin Cuyahoga Butler Medina Stark Cleveland Cincinnati Columbus Toledo Dayton Akron Canton 2016 Cleveland Cincinnati Columbus Toledo Dayton Akron Canton Hamilton Franklin Cuyahoga Butler Stark >5X higher than 2005 scale 10X higher than 2005 scale • Franklin • Cuyahoga • Hamilton, Lucas • Franklin • Hamilton • Cuyahoga 2011 2016 Top 3 counties for bed bugs: ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑
  7. 7. OSU Survey: Bed Bug Treatments by Pest Management Professionals per Year %ofRespondents 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 2011 2016
  8. 8. 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 2011 2016 OSU Survey: Bed Bug Treatment Sites Average % of Work Done at Site Types (Gov. Subsidized) (Not Subsidized)
  9. 9. 9.2% 20.0% 32.3% 20.0% 18.5% 2011 30.5% 22.6% 28.0% 10.4% 8.5% 2016 Use of sticky traps for bed bugs is decreasing-- sticky traps are not very effective in capturing bed bugs OSU Survey: Percentage of PMPs Using Sticky Tape or Glue Traps (Passive Monitors) Always AlwaysNever Rarely Sometimes Often Never Rarely Sometimes Often
  10. 10. Sticky Trap Ineffectiveness
  11. 11. --Passive Monitoring Devices-- Sticky Traps Bed Bug Pitfall Traps ClimbUp Interceptor LightsOut Interceptor bed leg BB Stop Pitfall Trap
  12. 12. Pitfall Traps (Passive Monitors) 42.1% 23.0% 22.2% 4.8% 7.9% 40.9% 17.1% 22.6% 14.6% 4.9% Never Rarely Sometimes Often Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always Some increase in use of pitfall traps 2011 2016 OSU Survey: Percentage of PMPs Using
  13. 13. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0% 1% to 10% 11% to 25% 26% to 50% 51% to 75% >75% Don't Know 2011 2016 OSU Survey: Misuse of DIY Products by Customers % of Customers Misusing DIY %ofRespondents Increasing # of customers are misusing DIY products
  14. 14. OSU Survey: Products Misused by Customers 2016 Alcohol Insecticide Dust or Powder OTC Fogger “Natural” Products Home Cleaner/ Disinfectant Professional Pesticide2011 Alcohol Insecticide Dust or Powder OTC Insecticide Aerosol or Liquid OTC Fogger Professional Pesticide OTC Insecticide Aerosol or Liquid
  15. 15. DON’T use bug bombs for bed bugs! www.nobuggy.com
  16. 16. - ”Bug Bombs” work very poorly against crawling insects - Few bugs will be killed! - “Bug Bombs” can cause bed bugs (and cockroaches) to scatter!!! Bug bombs can worsen a bed bug problem!
  17. 17. Over-the-Counter Foggers (“Bug Bombs”) — OSU Research —
  18. 18. DON’T use ultrasonic repellent devices against bed bugs or other insects.
  19. 19. cockroach feces cockroach shed skin bed bugs nearby
  20. 20. Percent (mean ± SE) of affected (moribund and dead) bed bug adults 7 days after being sprayed with various alcohol products. You will not kill many bed bugs by spraying alcohol products. (You may drown some with a thorough soaking).
  21. 21. Reasons why residents should not dispose of furniture, mattresses, etc.: • Bed bugs will fall off the furniture as it is being moved, hence spreading the problem. • Infested furniture usually can be treated. • Bed bugs can quickly infest replacement furniture. • Items placed in dumpsters often are picked up and reused, thereby spreading bed bugs to other households.
  22. 22. Some Basics of Bed Bug Management • Early detection and treatment are very important. • Bed bug control typically is much faster and less expensive when the infestation is detected early.
  23. 23. bedbugfoundation.org Unfed adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long 0.2 inch The Bed Bug Life Cycle Total developmental time (egg to adult): 21 days @ 86F 120 days @ 65F
  24. 24. BED BUG HABITS • Cannot fly • Can walk very fast • Typically hide during the day in dark, protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices) • Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces • Can cling tightly to surfaces
  25. 25. In Electrical Outlets Behind A Hanging Picture Some bed bug hiding places In Carpeting In Furniture
  26. 26. 96 95 10 5 14 3 4 1 2 1 3 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Totalnumberofbugsindetectors 1st Cirkil treatment (3.5 gal Cirkil CX + 0.17 gal RTU) 10-24-12 2nd Cirkil treatment (1.63 gal Cirkil CX + 0.13 gal RTU) 11-07-12 4th Cirkil treatment (5 gal Cirkil CX + 0.58 gal RTU) 01-18-13 Total volume Cirkil applied: 15.13 gal CX + 1.26 gal RTU 0 0 Live adults for ~145 days 3rd stage nymph 1st stage nymph adult male Live immature bed bugs for ~110 days Home vacated: late August 2012 Home temperature: 65-70°F (18-21°C) starved bed bugs can survive for a long time: 3rd Cirkil treatment (5 gal Cirkil CX + 0.38 gal RTU) 11-21-12
  27. 27. Home temperature: 65-70°F (18-21°C) c l o s e t bed Living Room Dining Room Master Bedroom Guest Bedroom Bath bed Kitchen recliner closet stairs to basement c l o s e t live dead dead dead dead dead dead live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live live dead dead dead 4 ClimbUps contained a total of 38 bed bugs (all stages) from master bedroom only 8 Verifis contained a total of 58 bed bugs (all stages) from living room, dining room, guest and master bedrooms dead dead dead Key ClimbUp Verifi Bed bug movement in vacant home— Assessment with Monitoring Devices Monitors in place for 9 d
  28. 28. Bed bugs are very good hitchhikers! • luggage • furniture • bedding • backpacks, purses, briefcases • clothing • … Bed bugs can be moved from one place to another by hiding in:
  29. 29. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in walker & wheelchair Photos courtesy of General Pest Control Co.
  30. 30. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in shoe tread
  31. 31. Bed Bugs In Public Facilities • Brought in by visitors, staff, etc. • Brought in on clothing, coats, shoes, purses, briefcases, wheelchairs, walkers, etc. • Bugs then crawl into the facilities’ chairs, carpeting, equipment, etc. • A single bed bug does not warrant panic or business closure! – Early identification is very important – Capture a bug for positive identification
  32. 32. --A pictorial guide for recognizing bed bugs and other household pests --Information on integrated pest management (IPM) strategies http://u.osu.edu/bedbugs
  33. 33. OSU Survey: Common Bed Bug “Imposters” • Carpet beetles • Cockroaches (esp. nymphs) • Stink bugs • Others, less common – Bat bugs – Other insects – Non-insects About 15% of customers ask for bed bug treatment when they have a different pest
  34. 34. – easily mistaken for bed bugs – multiple symptoms including itching (pruritus) and rash-- groups of spots; or red, inflamed skin with or without blisters – complaints of being bitten by something causing an intense itching and rash – in some people, irritation of respiratory tract and eyes Know your Pest: Carpet Beetles furniture carpet beetle Anthrenus flavipes larvae adults black carpet beetle Attagenus unicolor larva adult pestcontrol-products .com/beetle_facts.htm Larval hairs can cause dermatitis in humans
  35. 35. • Larvae feed on animal materials – woolens, carpets, furs, hides, feathers, horns, bones, hair, silk, fish meal, insect pupae, dead insects – cause surface damage, misc. holes, uneven areas • Larvae also feed on plant materials – rye meal, corn, red pepper, rice, flour, wheat • Adults feed primarily on pollen & nectar (esp. Spiraea spp. & crape myrtle); pollen is required for egg production Carpet Beetles Bridal wreath spirea Japanese spirea Crape myrtle varied carpet beetle Anthrenus verbasci James Kalisch, UNL Entomology adults larvae
  36. 36. Recognize the telltale signs of bed bugs! • Black fecal spots • Shed skins & eggshells • Live bed bugs (nymphs & adults) • Blood stains from crushed bugs • Welts on exposed skin • Distinctive “buggy” odor (in severe infestations) 38
  37. 37. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) : Correctly identify the pest + Conduct a thorough inspection + Use sanitation measures + Use non-chemical measures + Apply insecticides to targeted sites
  38. 38. Vacuuming to contain bed bugs Jones and Boggs. 2001. OSU Fact Sheet HYG-2158.
  39. 39. Treatment Options • Heat treatment (whole structure, container) • Important to include residual insecticide product(s) • Insecticide treatment (dusts, liquids, aerosols) • Residual insecticide products are essential • Fumigation (sulfuryl fluoride) • Important to include residual insecticide product(s)
  40. 40. • Residual insecticides are essential!!! • There is no single “magic bullet” • Bed bug control is time-intensive and labor-intensive • Spot treat all harborage sites Some Basics of Bed Bug Management Using Insecticides
  41. 41. • Bed bug control typically takes several treatments (average of 2 to 3 trts) • It is important to use several different formulations (dusts, sprays, etc.), and often, several different insecticides Some Basics of Bed Bug Management Using Insecticides
  42. 42. OSU Survey: Visits Needed per Infestation Clustered around average of 2-3 visits per infestation 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more 2011 2016
  43. 43. Active Ingredient (insecticide class) Product Name(s) Imidacloprid + ß-cyfluthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Temprid® SC Acetamiprid + bifenthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Transport® Mikron Transport® GHP Thiamethoxam + λ-cyhalothrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Tandem® Dinotefuran + diatomaceous earth (neonicotinoid + silica dioxide) Prescription Treatment Alpine® Dust Alpine® PI Chlorfenapyr (halogenated pyrrole) Phantom® SC Phantom® PI Amorphous silica gel CimeXa™ Clothianidin + metofluthrin + PBO (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid + synergist) CrossFire® Some newer insecticides for use against bed bugs:
  44. 44. P h a n t o m P I B e d l a m A l p i n e P I P r o p o x u r Insecticides Don’t Always Kill Bed Bug Eggs
  45. 45. Bed bugs are developing resistance to newer insecticides…
  46. 46. Silica Gel – Promising Desiccant Dust
  47. 47. Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth Against Bed Bugs •Water dramatically reduces efficacy of DE, even once it dries! •Do not allow DE applications to become damp! — OSU Research Study —
  48. 48. Fungus – Promising Biopesticide
  49. 49. Two synthetic pesticides that ARE regulated by EPA Eleven natural pesticides that ARE NOT regulated by EPA Rutgers Univ. 2014 Study Percentage of dead bed bug nymphs at 10 days after being directly sprayed
  50. 50. August 2010 Bed bugs are a pest of significant public health importance! http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Publications/Bed_Bugs_CDC-EPA_Statement.htm http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/bedbugs/ CDC & EPA Joint Statement
  51. 51. Bed Bug Bites • Skin reactions (avg = 7 of 10 people) • Redness • Welts • Itching • Resemble bites from other insects & arthropods • Typically no red spot at the center (such as with fleas and black flies) • Typically occur on exposed skin • Neck and face; shoulders and arms; back; etc. • Rarely occur on the palms or soles (such as with scabies mites) • Often occur in rows or groups • Confirmation based on finding bed bug evidence
  52. 52. Health Effects from Bed Bugs • Skin reactions (7 of 10 people on avg.) • Redness • Welts • Itching • Secondary bacterial infections • Anemia • Asthma • Anaphylactic shock • Psychological effects • Sleeplessness • Agitation • Anxiety • Insecticide exposure • …
  53. 53. Tips for Employees That Make Home Visits • Minimize items to be carried inside • Don’t sit on beds, upholstered furniture, or the floor • Do a self-inspection immediately after departing (thoroughly inspect shoes) • Change into fresh clothing ASAP (consider keeping a change of clothes at work) • Bag used items (seal the bag) • Dissolvable laundry bags are an option • Disinfect clothing by laundering & drying Tyvek boot covers Tyvek coveralls
  54. 54. Disinfect Items by Laundering & Drying (kills all bed bug life stages) Launder clothing • Wash in hot water (>120ºF) • Use drier on hot setting (>30 mins.) • Dry clean items
  55. 55. Did you check for signs of bed bugs in your hotel/motel room when you last traveled?
  56. 56. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS Make it STANDARD PRACTICE to check for bed bugs in hotel/motel rooms! • Pull back the bedding and look for black fecal spots on mattress & box springs (especially seams) • Carefully examine the underside of the bed skirt • Look for bb signs along bed frame (especially head board) • Open nightstand drawers and look for bb signs along inner and outer edges • Look for bb signs along baseboards DON’T STAY IN A ROOM THAT HAS BB SIGNS
  57. 57. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS • Keep clothes in your zipped suitcase • Don’t keep clothes in hotel chest-of-drawers • OK to hang clothes in closet • Don’t store your suitcase on the bed, floor, or upholstered furniture • Keep your suitcase on the luggage rack (after first inspecting it for bb signs) Reduce the chances of getting bed bugs from hotel/motel rooms! • The bathroom (tub) is the best place to store your items!
  58. 58. BED BUG PREVENTION AT HOME Don’t bring infested items home! • Inspect clothing and luggage of travelers • Inspect secondhand beds, bedding, furniture, & clothing
  59. 59. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in luggage
  60. 60. http://u.osu.edu/bedbugs
  61. 61. Acknowledgments • Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force • Ohio Pest Management Association • Sarah Casey • Alex Tyrpak • Tae-Young Lee • Olimpia Ferguson
  62. 62. Acknowledgements Funding support: • USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Hatch • Extension IPM Program Statistics (for survey): • OSU Statistical Consulting Service – Steven Naber – Jeni Squiric – Michael Matthews – Chengong Han
  63. 63. • 1 Call Pest Contracting • 4 Corners Pest Solutions • 4Sure Pest Control • *A & A Pest Control Service • A-ABEL Exterminating Co. • Abell Pest Control • ABES Pest Control, Inc. • Absolute Extermination and Inspection, LLC • Accel Pest Control OH, LLC • *Ace Exterminating Co. • Acme Exterminating, Inc. • Action Exterminating • Action Now, Inc. • Action Pest Control, Inc. & American Exterminating Co. • Advanced Pest Control • Aero Pest Control, LLC • Affordable Exterminating • *Aid Pest Control, LLC • Algo Termite and Pest Control • All Ohio Pest Control Co. • All Pest Exterminating, Inc. • AllPest Pest Control and Solutions • All State Termite & Pest • All-Pro Wildlife Control • Alright Pest Solutions LLC • Alron Pest Control • Ampulex Environmental Solutions, LLC • Andy's Alliance Pest Control • Antrim Pest Control • *Apollo Pest Control • *Arab Termite and Pest Control • Arnold-Wilmar Pest Solutions • Arrest-A-Pest of Northern Ohio • Avalon Pest Control • Ayers Pest Mgt., LLC • Bay Pest Control • BCG, LLC • Beastmaster Pest Services • Bed Bug Burners, LLC • Bob Seljan • Boggs Pest Control, Inc. • *Bona Fide Commercial Services • Brookside Lawn Service, Inc. • Bryan Hartley • Buckeye Bug Blasters, LLC • *Buckeye Exterminating, Inc. • Budget Pest Control • Buentello Pest Control • Bug Off Pest Control • Bug Zappers Acknowledgements Participating Companies (Surveys): *Participated in both 2011 and 2016 surveys. Many participants elected to remain anonymous.
  64. 64. Acknowledgements Participating Companies (Surveys): • *Capital City Exterminating Co. • Cavalry Pest Control • CCI Wireless • Central Exterminating Co., Inc. • Central Ohio Exterminating • Certified Extermination Solution • Christensen's Urban Insect Solutions, Inc. • Classic Care • *Cleveland Chemical Pest Control, Inc. • Clippinger Pest Control • *Columbus Pest Control, Inc. • Complete Termite & Pest Control • Contact Pest Control, LLC • Couch's Termite & Pest Control • Crankerup Pest Control • Critter Control of Cincinnati • Critter Control of Lexington • Cuyahoga Metro. Housing Authority • D/J Bug Away, LLC • Dan's Pest Patrol • David Hersh • Dayton's Bed Bug Dog, LLC • Dependable Pest Control • Dick's All Be Gone Pest Control Ltd. • Discreet Bed Bug Removal • *Discreet Pest Control • Eco-Care Pest Control • Economy Pest Control • Ecopro Pest Solutions • Elite Pest Management, LLC • *Epcon Lane • Extermital Termite & Pest Control, Inc. • Faith Enterprise Environmental Services • First Choice Pest Control • First Choice Pest Management Co. • Flag City Pest Control, Inc. • Frame's Pest Control, Inc. • Friend's Termite & Pest Control • Frobase Horticultural Services • Gary Benson Pest Control • Gary L. Bauer • Geauga Metro. Housing Authority • Gotcha! Pest Control Specialists, Inc. • Grass Master, Inc. • Great Lakes Pest Management Services *Participated in both 2011 and 2016 surveys. Many participants elected to remain anonymous.
  65. 65. • Hartley's Termite & Pest Control, LLC • Hawx Pest Control • Hixco Integrated Pest Management • Holmes Pest Control, Inc. • Homewood Pest Control, LLC • *Hooper Termite & Pest Control • House Physicians of Ohio • Imperial Pest Control, LLC • Innovative Pest Management, Inc. • InspectOhio • *Integrity Pest Solutions, LLC • JB Vegetation & Insect Control, LLC • John Henry's Pest Control • Joy Exterminating Co., LLC • Keith's Perfect Fit, LLC • Kline Pest Control Co., Inc. • L&S Termite and Pest Control, Inc. • Ladybug Services, LLC • Lakewood Exterminating • Lawnco, Inc. • Licking Metro. Housing Authority • Liechty & Sons Exterminating • LongPro Pest Control • Lucky Lee's Pest Control • Lu-Crest Pest Control • Lutes Flying Service, Inc. • Mauger Exterminating Co. • *Meredith Pest Control • Merlin's Pest Control • Miami University • Miami Valley Pest Control Service • *Michael’s Pest Control • Midwest Termite & Pest Control • Moore Pest Management Co. • Mulholland Pest Control, Inc. • *Ohio Exterminating Co., Inc. • Ohio Valley Pest Control • *Orkin, LLC (mult. branches) • Paragon Pest Elimination • Patrick's Pest Control • Pawnee Pest Management • PCS Lawncare • Pepzee Realty • *Permakil Pest Control, Inc. • Pesco Pest Control, LLC • Pest Pro Pest Solutions, Inc. • *Pest-All Exterminating • Phelps Termite & Pest Control • Pike Professional Pest Control • *Precision Pest Management • Premier Pest Control, LLC Acknowledgements Participating Companies (Surveys): *Participated in both 2011 and 2016 surveys. Many participants elected to remain anonymous.
  66. 66. • Prevent Pest Control • *Pro Kill, Inc. • Prokill Exterminating • Redwine Pest Control • Reliance Home Inspections • Responsible Services • Rid-X Pest Control, Inc. • *Rose Pest Solutions • RxProtect • S.A.B. Landscaping, Inc. • Scherzinger Termite & Pest Control Management, LLC • Scioto County Career Tech • Seckman Pest Control • Sideline Property • *Skyhigh Termite & Pest Control, LLC • Snowball Pest Control • *Speed Exterminating Co., Inc. • SPS Pest Control, Inc. • State Termite & Pest Solutions • Stewart Pest Control Co. • Stauffs Corp. DBA: Aid Pest Control • Sure Thing Pest Control • T&M Pest Control, Inc. • Terminator Services • Terminix (multiple branches) • Termitco • *Terry the Bug Man • The Bug Guy Tom • The X-Terminator • TNT Exterminating Co. • Tom's Pest Control • Tony Shultz • Torco • TriCity Termite • Truly Nolen, Inc. (multiple branches) • Ultra Pest Control • Universal Pest Control • Valley Termite & Pest Control, LLC • Vandagriff Pest Control • Varment Guard • Vaughn Pest Control, LLC • Vegetation Solutions • Vollman Pest Control • Wells Thur-O Pest Control, Inc. • William A Barns Trust • Wright's Termite Pest Co. • Yards Done Right • Ziehler Lawn and Tree Care, LLC Acknowledgements Participating Companies (Surveys): *Participated in both 2011 and 2016 surveys. Many participants elected to remain anonymous.
  67. 67. Thank You! Sleep tight, and don’t let the … … well, you know the rest

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