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Bed Bug biology and Research by Dr. Susan Jones at COBBTF Summit 2015

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Dr. Susan Jones in depth discussion on bed bugs

Acknowledgments:

Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
Joint Bed Bug Task Force
Camille Jones
Greg Kesterman
Courtney Darrington
Josh Bryant
Nina Bogart
Kara Baker

Published in: Education
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Bed Bug biology and Research by Dr. Susan Jones at COBBTF Summit 2015

  1. 1. Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update Dr. Susan C. Jones Professor of Entomology
  2. 2. ©Graphicmaps.com
  3. 3. Cimex lectularius: the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)  Only feed on blood  Prefer humans  Alternate hosts—dogs, cats, rats, birds, etc.  Typically feed at night  Cause significant economic, physical, & mental distress bedbugfoundation.org Unfed adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long 0.2 inch
  4. 4. The Human Factor
  5. 5. • Denial of a bed bug problem/stigma • Incorrect identification • Ignorance of bed bugs and management strategies • Do-it-yourself mentality • Money • Clutter • Mental health problems • Physical incapacity • Etc. Some of the challenges due to landlords/management and/or residents:
  6. 6. bedbugfoundation.org Unfed adults: ~1/4 to 3/8 inch long 0.2 inch Total developmental time (egg to adult): 21 days @ 86F 120 days @ 65F The Bed Bug Factor
  7. 7. • Slender profile; hide in many sites from floor to ceiling • Strong tendency to disperse – Hitchhiking – Walking • Can feed on multiple warm-blooded animals • Bites cause variable reactions in humans • Can survive starvation for long periods • Insecticide resistance • Etc. Some of the challenges due to bed bugs:
  8. 8. BED BUG HABITS • Cannot fly • Can walk very fast • Typically hide during the day in dark, protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices) • Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces • Can cling tightly to surfaces
  9. 9. In Electrical Outlets Behind A Hanging Picture Some bed bug hiding places In Carpeting In Furniture
  10. 10. BED BUG HIDING PLACES  Mattress, box springs  Bed frame  Furniture  Carpeting  Cracks and crevices  Carpet tack strips  Baseboards  Window frames, door frames  Electric outlets, switch plates  Wall hangings, pictures  Drapery pleats, window blinds  Smoke detectors  Ceiling moldings  etc.
  11. 11. Reasons why residents should not dispose of furniture, mattresses, etc.: • Bed bugs will fall off the furniture as it is being moved, hence spreading the problem. • Infested furniture usually can be treated. • Bed bugs can quickly infest replacement furniture. • Items placed in dumpsters often are picked up and reused, thereby spreading bed bugs to other households.
  12. 12. How do bed bugs travel? • Walking • from an infested room to new territory • from one apartment to another via pipes, electrical wires, cables, … • down a hallway after dropping off an item • Hitchhiking
  13. 13. In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily spread to units that are adjacent, below, and above the infested unit.
  14. 14. Bed bugs are very good hitchhikers! • luggage • furniture • bedding • backpacks, purses, briefcases • clothing • … Bed bugs can be moved from one place to another by hiding in:
  15. 15. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in walker & wheelchair Photos courtesy of General Pest Control Co.
  16. 16. Bed Bug Hitchhikers in Luggage
  17. 17. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in shoe tread
  18. 18. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— on shoes
  19. 19. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/2/2/232 Test conditions: 79-80 °F (~26.5 °C) 69% RH
  20. 20. • Often closely associated with hosts’ sleeping or resting sites (hide in many places) • Locate their host using cues such as carbon dioxide, heat, odor • Typically feed at night Bed Bug Feeding Habits
  21. 21. Sharp beak-like mouthparts penetrate the skin: The Mechanics of Biting Photo: Harvard Univ. mandibles and maxillae (at tip of fascicle) (very flexible; thrust about into tissues until a suitable blood vessel is reached) stylet fascicle (driven into skin to anchor the stylet fascicle) labium bed-bugs.com
  22. 22. Health Effects from Bed Bugs • Skin reactions (7 of 10 people on avg.) • Redness • Welts • Itching • Secondary bacterial infections • Anemia • Asthma • Anaphylactic shock • Psychological effects • Sleeplessness • Agitation • Anxiety • Insecticide exposure • …
  23. 23. August 2010 Bed bugs are a pest of significant public health importance! http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Publications/Bed_Bugs_CDC-EPA_Statement.htm http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/bedbugs/ CDC & EPA Joint Statement
  24. 24. urticariaatypical bullous lesions common distribution of skin lesions Clinical Manifestations of Bed Bug Bites (Cimicosis) • Typically on exposed skin • Often in groups or rows
  25. 25. Permanent scars from bed bug bites
  26. 26. wasp
  27. 27. Diagnosis of Bed Bug Bites • Diagnosis of a bed bug bite is speculative. • Confirmation is based on bed bug evidence. • Resemble bites from other insects/arthropods • Typically no red puncture spot at the center (such as with fleas and black flies) • Rarely occur on the palms or soles (such as with scabies mites) • … If you wake up with itchy, red welts that weren’t there when you went to bed, perhaps its bed bugs.
  28. 28. 2009. JAMA 301(13): 1358-1366. “There are few data to support bed bugs as vectors for transmission of human disease agents. … transmission of a human disease is yet to be firmly established.”
  29. 29. Delaunay et al. 2011  Carry 40+ human pathogens (Goddard and deShazo 2009)  Recent studies have targeted specific pathogens • Hepatitis B, C (Blow et al. 2001, Silverman et al. 2001) • HIV (Webb et al. 1989) • Bacteria (Lowe and Romney 2011, Cockburn et al. 2013, Leuimi et al. 2015) • Trypanosoma cruzi (Blakely et al. 2014, Salazar et al. 2015) Role in Disease
  30. 30. Known Disease-Transmitting Hemipterans (True Bugs) Reduviidae: triatomine bugs (kissing bugs)  Transmit Chagas disease via feces  Defecate on host while feeding  Transmission occurs when feces are rubbed into bite wound or mucous membrane (cdc.gov) biologyacademie.blogspot.com
  31. 31.  Hemotek artificial feeder  Warms blood in reservoirs  Parafilm membrane  Defibrinated rabbit blood  Rattus norvegicus (naked rats)  Wire mesh tubes w/ snap cap ends Materials & Methods — OSU Research— Courtney L. Darrington MS, OSU Department of Entomology (2015)
  32. 32.  Bed bugs defecate in close proximity to their feeding site (avg. 1-2.5 cm [0.4-1 inch])  Artificial feeder  Live host (naked rats)  Bed bugs defecate soon after feeding (5-120 sec)  Repletion status greatly influences whether bugs defecate  Defecation Index (DI) of 2.57 for adult bed bugs suggests a high potential to infect a host  DI of 3.08 in females supports suggestion in triatomines that females are the most epidemiologically important stage — OSU Research— Courtney L. Darrington MS, OSU Department of Entomology (2015)
  33. 33. (2015). 9(5): e0003789. doi:10.1371
  34. 34. The bacterium was detected in the feces and bodies (digestive tract) of bed bugs at the 3rd day post-infection, and it persisted for ~2.5 weeks. Bed Bugs and Trench Fever
  35. 35. Imagine Sleeping In These Conditions
  36. 36. Imagine Sleeping In These Conditions
  37. 37. Columbus, OH 4/26/11 Pesticide exposure due to misuse Columbus, OH 6/28/12
  38. 38. Did you check for signs of bed bugs in your hotel/motel room when you last traveled?
  39. 39. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS Make it STANDARD PRACTICE to check for bed bugs in hotel/motel rooms!• Pull back the bedding and look for black fecal spots on mattress & box springs (especially seams) • Carefully examine the underside of the bed skirt • Look for bb signs along bed frame (especially head board) • Open nightstand drawers and look for bb signs along inner and outer edges • Look for bb signs along baseboards DON’T STAY IN A ROOM THAT HAS BB SIGNS
  40. 40. BED BUG PREVENTION FOR TRAVELERS • Keep clothes in your zipped suitcase • Don’t keep clothes in hotel chest-of-drawers • OK to hang clothes in closet • Don’t store your suitcase on the bed, floor, or upholstered furniture • Keep your suitcase on the luggage rack (after first inspecting it for bb signs) Reduce the chances of getting bed bugs from hotel/motel rooms! • The bathroom (tub) is the best place to store your items!
  41. 41. Sticky Traps Bed Bug Detector Trap --Passive Monitoring Devices--
  42. 42. --Passive Monitoring Devices-- Bed Bug Interceptors • Positioned under furniture legs • Furniture must be kept in use—bugs are attracted to host’s CO2 • Pitfall trap—bed bugs climb in and cannot escape* – *Inner walls of ClimbUps must be kept lubricated with talcum powder or bugs can escape • Eliminate alternative ways for bugs to access furniture (don’t let bugs bypass interceptors) • Keep furniture several inches away from walls • Don’t let bed linens, dust ruffle, & bedding contact the floor or walls ClimbUp® Interceptor LightsOut® Interceptor bed leg
  43. 43. FMC Verifi™ Bed Bug Detector http://www.fmcprosolutions.com/BedBugs/PropertyManager/Home.aspx A- CO2 booster pack B- lures (pheromone + kairomone) C- pitfall trap area D- harborage area E- self-adhesive sticker --Active Monitoring Device-- Front view (with cut away revealing interior components) Rear view No longer manufactured
  44. 44. Rutgers University Field Study August 2011 ‘Detection Tools and Techniques’ By: Changlu Wang and Richard Cooper Canine team performance (7 firms; 24 apts.) Average Range Inspection time 150 minutes 100-250 min. Cost $750 $500-1,000 Detection rate 43% 11-83% False positive rate (signaling bed bugs that weren’t there) 0-38%  Much variability among canine detection firms.  Can be a useful tool in large-scale inspections.
  45. 45. The liners consist of finely woven polyester fabric impregnated with 1.64% permethrin. The liners are kept in place on mattresses and box springs beneath bedding.
  46. 46. Bed bugs were not repelled from ActiveGuard™ liners TreatmentControlB B AG B B = Blank fabric AG = ActiveGuard fabric — OSU Research—
  47. 47. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean(+/-SE)percentmoribund/dead Days EPM Marcia Earl Harlan —OSU Research— Bed Bug Contact Bioassay Contact with ActiveGuard fabric caused bed bugs from susceptible and moderately resistant populations to die within ~1 day; a highly resistant population (Marcia) began dying after ~4 days exposure.
  48. 48. —OSU Research Results— Bed Bug Feeding Bioassay ActiveGuard Proportion (mean ± SEM) of feeding attempts and successful feedings by adult female bed bugs following brief exposure to permethrin-impregnated or untreated fabric: ActiveGuard Exposure to ActiveGuard fabric for 1 or 10 min significantly decreased the likelihood that a bed bug attempted to feed. Exposure to ActiveGuard fabric for 10 min significantly decreased the likelihood that a bed bug successfully fed. Statistically similar responses among 5 bed bug populations ranging from highly susceptible to extremely resistant
  49. 49. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) : Correctly identify the pest + Conduct a thorough inspection + Use sanitation measures + Use non-chemical measures + Apply insecticides to targeted sites
  50. 50. Some Basics of Bed Bug Management Using Insecticides • There is no single “magic bullet”. • Bed bug control typically takes several treatments. • It is important to use several different formulations, and often, several different insecticides. • A residual insecticide is necessary. • Don’t keep using the same insecticide (rotate insecticide use)
  51. 51. March 14, 2013 http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130314/srep01456/pdf/srep01456.pdf Resistance genes were very active in the bed bug exoskeleton (skin).
  52. 52. Pyrethroid Resistance Categorization of Bed Bug Populations — OSU Research— Highly pyrethroid resistant bed bugs do not show adverse effects, even when exposed to very high concentrations of dry deposits of technical deltamethrin.
  53. 53. Active Ingredient (insecticide class) Product Name(s) Imidacloprid + ß-cyfluthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Temprid® SC Chlorfenapyr (halogenated pyrrole) Phantom® SC Phantom® PI Acetamiprid + bifenthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Transport® Mikron Transport® GHP Thiamethoxam + λ-cyhalothrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Tandem® Dinotefuran + diatomaceous earth (neonicotinoid + silica dioxide) Prescription Treatment Alpine® Dust Alpine® PI Amorphous silica gel CimeXa™ Neem seed oil (azadirachtin) Cirkil™ CX Cirkil™ RTU Some pyrethroid alternatives for use against bed bugs:
  54. 54. — OSU Research — Effectiveness of combination insecticides against bed bugs
  55. 55. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Initial 30 m 1 h 2 h 4 h 8 h Meanpercentmoribund/dead 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Initial 30 m 1 h 2 h 4 h 8 h Meanpercentmoribund/dead ̶ Results ̶ Direct Spray Pyrethroid susceptible bugs Rapid bed bug mortality is achieved through directly spraying bed bugs. Pyrethroid resistant bugs Even with highly resistant bed bugs the bugs quickly died after being sprayed with any of the 3 insecticides. Evidence of contact toxicity.
  56. 56. PlywoodFabric Efficacy of Temprid SC Residues on Plywood and Fabric Aged for 6 mo (182 d) highly resistant moderately resistant susceptible Brief exposure (hours) to a residual insecticide caused rapid death of pyrethroid-susceptible bed bugs, but not highly pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs. Resistant bugs had to spend days in direct contact with the dry residues. Temprid had long lasting residual.
  57. 57. Words of caution regarding over-the-counter ‘natural products’ for bed bug control: • Exempt from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration • EPA requires no efficacy data • Claims often based on “satisfied customers”—be sure to ask for their research data and evaluate it carefully • Botanical (plant based) products often have a strong odor • Botanical products often have limited, if any, residual activity
  58. 58. 25(b) Exempt Minimum Risk Natural Products Condition 4: The label cannot include any false or misleading statements, and claims that minimum risk pesticides protect human or public health are prohibited. Must meet five conditions, including:
  59. 59. Rutgers Univ. 2014 Study: Natural Pesticides
  60. 60. Rutgers Univ. 2014 Study: Natural Pesticides
  61. 61. Rutgers Univ. 2014 Study: Natural Pesticides
  62. 62. 25(b) Natural Products (exempt from EPA registration) FTC takes action The FTC complaint charges that the Cedarcide defendants make: • false claims that scientific studies prove Best Yet! is effective at stopping and preventing bed bug infestations, and that it is more effective than synthetic pesticides at doing so; • a false claim that the Environmental Protection Agency has warned consumers to avoid all synthetic pesticides for treating bed bug infestations; • … • false claims that Best Yet! was invented for the U.S. Army at the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and that the USDA has acknowledged the product as the number one choice of bio-based pesticides The FTC complaint charges that the RMB Group defendants make unsupported claims that Rest Easy kills and repels bed bugs, and that a consumer can create a barrier against them by spraying the product around a bed. http://ftc.gov/opa/2012/09/cedarcidermb.shtm
  63. 63. Acknowledgments • Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force • Joint Bed Bug Task Force • Camille Jones • Greg Kesterman • Courtney Darrington • Josh Bryant • Nina Bogart • Kara Baker
  64. 64. Thank You! Sleep tight, and don’t let the … … well, you know the rest

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