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Bed Bug Biology/Behavior
and
Research Update
Dr. Susan C. Jones
Professor of Entomology
Sept/Oct 2013 Pestworld
The Most Bed Bug-Infested Cities in the U.S.
©Graphicmaps.com
The Common Bed Bug
(Cimex lectularius)
Hemiptera: Cimicidae
Insects (true bugs)
• Temporary external parasites
• Feed only...
BED BUG HABITS
• Cannot fly
• Can walk very fast
• Typically hide during the day in dark,
protected sites (esp. cracks & c...
In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily
spread to units that are adjacent, below,
and above the infested unit.
How do bed bugs travel?
• Walking
• from an infested room to new
territory
• from one apartment to another
via pipes, elec...
Bed Bug Hitchhikers in Luggage
--Bed Bug Hitchhikers—
in walker & wheelchair
Photos courtesy of General Pest Control Co.
--Bed Bug Hitchhikers—
in shoe tread
Female Male
Adult Bed Bugs
hanging picture
Bed Bug Harborages
carpet
electric outlet
cover
LIFE CYCLE
OF THE
BED BUG
(Cimex lectularius)
Adult (male & female)
~0.26 inch (6.5 mm) long
Takes repeated blood meals;
l...
Life History Characteristics Show
That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly
Increase … (Early Detection and Treatment
are Very Impo...
Note: red eyes
on developing
embryos that are
nearing hatch
Life History Characteristics Show
That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly
Increase … (Early Detection and Treatment
are Very Impo...
http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/2/2/232
Test conditions:
79-80 °F (~26.5 °C)
69% RH
• Typically feed at night
• Locate their host using cues
such as carbon dioxide, heat,
and odor
Bed Bug Feeding Habits
Health Effects from Bed Bugs
• Skin reactions in 7 of 10 people
• Redness
• Welts
• Itching
• Secondary bacterial infectio...
Fig 3. Clinical manifestations of
bed bug bites: three or four skin
lesions are often seen in a
“breakfast (1), lunch (2),...
August 2010
Bed bugs are a
pest of significant
public health
importance!
http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Publications/Bed_Bugs...
Pesticide Misuse
Columbus, OH 4/26/11
Pesticide Misuse
Columbus, OH 6/28/12
FMC Verifi™ Bed Bug Detector
http://www.fmcprosolutions.com/BedBugs/PropertyManager/Home.aspx
A- CO2 booster pack
B- lures...
PITFALL— OSU Research Study —
All Stages Of Bed Bugs Were
Captured In The Verifi™ Detector Pitfall.
Monthly
insecticide
treatments
initiated
Date
High-rise apt. building
Rental office Security booth
2/14/2013 Install
2/21/...
a
Verifi lure components replaced in all detectors; wiped free of debris.
— OSU Research Study —
Results
Date
Townhome off...
Second Floor
Master bedroom
Main Floor
Family room
Entry
door
closet
Key
ClimbUp
Verifi
— Materials & Methods —
Dining roo...
Comparison of Erroneous Results with
Canine Team, Dry Ice Trap, and Verifi™ Detector
— OSU Research Study —
0
1
2
3
Dog 1 ...
Rutgers University Field Study
August 2011
‘Detection
Tools and
Techniques’
By: Changlu
Wang and
Richard
Cooper
Canine tea...
The liners consist of finely
woven polyester fabric
impregnated with 1.64%
permethrin. The liners are kept
in place on mat...
Bed bugs were not repelled
from ActiveGuard liners
TreatmentsControlsC C T C
Bed Bug Movement on ActiveGuard™ Liners
— OSU...
Words of caution regarding
over-the-counter ‘natural
products’ for bed bug control:
• Exempt from Environmental Protection...
25(b) Natural Products (exempt from EPA registration)
FTC takes action
The FTC complaint charges that the Cedarcide defend...
March 2013
By: Narinderpal Singh, Changlu Wang, and Richard Cooper
Rutgers Univ. Study: Natural Pesticides
Mortality (>50%)
at 10 days
100%
Low mortality
(<50%)
92%
60%
Low mortality
(<50%)
Low mortality
(<50%)
Low mortality (<50...
Active Ingredient
(insecticide class)
Product Name(s)
Imidacloprid + ß-cyfluthrin
(neonicotinoid + pyrethroid)
Temprid®
SC...
OSU Research to Evaluate Contact and
Residual Efficacy of Combination
Insecticides (Tandem™, Temprid™ SC, and
Transport® M...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Initial 30 m 1 h 2 h 4 h 8 h
Meanpercentmoribund/dead
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
In...
PlywoodFabric Efficacy of Temprid SC Residues on Plywood and
Fabric Aged for 6 mo (182 d)
highly
resistant
moderately
resi...
March 14, 2013
http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130314/srep01456/pdf/srep01456.pdf
Resistance genes were very active in
the...
Some Basics of Bed Bug
Management Using
Insecticides
• There is no single “magic bullet”.
• Bed bug control typically take...
IDENTIFICATION SERVICES
Ohio State University Pest Diagnostic Clinic
• Fee for identification services ($20 per insect
sam...
Thank You!
Sleep tight,
and don’t let the …
… well, you know the rest
Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
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Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force

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Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force
From the 2014 Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force Summit

Courtesy of Dr. Susan Jones, Professor of Entomology at The Ohio State University

Published in: Education
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Bed Bug Biology and Research Central Ohio Bed Bug Task Force

  1. 1. Bed Bug Biology/Behavior and Research Update Dr. Susan C. Jones Professor of Entomology
  2. 2. Sept/Oct 2013 Pestworld
  3. 3. The Most Bed Bug-Infested Cities in the U.S.
  4. 4. ©Graphicmaps.com
  5. 5. The Common Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Hemiptera: Cimicidae Insects (true bugs) • Temporary external parasites • Feed only on blood • Prefer to feed on humans • Alternate hosts: rodents, bats, birds, pets (cats, dogs, etc.) Not caused by bad housekeeping!! BED BUGS CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE!
  6. 6. BED BUG HABITS • Cannot fly • Can walk very fast • Typically hide during the day in dark, protected sites (esp. cracks & crevices) • Prefer fabric, wood, and paper surfaces • Can cling tightly to surfaces
  7. 7. In multi-family housing, bed bugs readily spread to units that are adjacent, below, and above the infested unit.
  8. 8. How do bed bugs travel? • Walking • from an infested room to new territory • from one apartment to another via pipes, electrical wires, cables, … • down a hallway after dropping off an item • Hitchhiking
  9. 9. Bed Bug Hitchhikers in Luggage
  10. 10. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in walker & wheelchair Photos courtesy of General Pest Control Co.
  11. 11. --Bed Bug Hitchhikers— in shoe tread
  12. 12. Female Male Adult Bed Bugs
  13. 13. hanging picture Bed Bug Harborages carpet electric outlet cover
  14. 14. LIFE CYCLE OF THE BED BUG (Cimex lectularius) Adult (male & female) ~0.26 inch (6.5 mm) long Takes repeated blood meals; life span ~1 to 1½ yrs 4th stage nymph ~0.12 inch (3 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts 2nd stage nymph ~0.08 inch (2 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts 5th stage nymph ~0.18 inch (4.5 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts Egg ~0.04 inch (1 mm) long Glued in place 3rd stage nymph ~0.1 inch (2.5 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts Note: These images depict bugs with a partly digested blood meal. 1st stage nymph ~0.06 inch (1.5 mm) long Takes a blood meal then molts © The Ohio State University Dr. Susan C. Jones & Benjamin R. Diehl Total developmental time (egg to adult): 21 days @ 86F 120 days @ 65F
  15. 15. Life History Characteristics Show That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly Increase … (Early Detection and Treatment are Very Important)  Eggs  Glued in place  1 – 12 eggs / day / female  A single female can produce ~150 eggs  Hatch in 6 – 17 days
  16. 16. Note: red eyes on developing embryos that are nearing hatch
  17. 17. Life History Characteristics Show That Bed Bug Numbers Can Quickly Increase … (Early Detection and Treatment are Very Important)  Eggs  Glued in place  1 – 12 eggs / day / female  A single female can produce ~150 eggs  Hatch in 6 – 17 days  Adults (males & females)  Require repeated blood meals  Can live 12 – 18 months  Can survive months of starvation  Nymphs (immature bugs)  Five nymphal stages  Require a blood meal in order to grow
  18. 18. http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/2/2/232 Test conditions: 79-80 °F (~26.5 °C) 69% RH
  19. 19. • Typically feed at night • Locate their host using cues such as carbon dioxide, heat, and odor Bed Bug Feeding Habits
  20. 20. Health Effects from Bed Bugs • Skin reactions in 7 of 10 people • Redness • Welts • Itching • Secondary bacterial infections • Anemia • Asthma • Anaphylactic shock • Psychological effects • Sleeplessness • Agitation • Anxiety …
  21. 21. Fig 3. Clinical manifestations of bed bug bites: three or four skin lesions are often seen in a “breakfast (1), lunch (2), dinner (3)” distribution (A), or “wheel” distribution (B); Atypical bullous lesions (C); and urticaria (D).
  22. 22. August 2010 Bed bugs are a pest of significant public health importance! http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Publications/Bed_Bugs_CDC-EPA_Statement.htm http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/bedbugs/ CDC & EPA Joint Statement
  23. 23. Pesticide Misuse
  24. 24. Columbus, OH 4/26/11 Pesticide Misuse Columbus, OH 6/28/12
  25. 25. FMC Verifi™ Bed Bug Detector http://www.fmcprosolutions.com/BedBugs/PropertyManager/Home.aspx A- CO2 booster pack B- lures (pheromone + kairomone) C- pitfall trap area D- harborage area E- self-adhesive sticker --Active Monitoring Device-- Front view (with cut away revealing interior components) Rear view
  26. 26. PITFALL— OSU Research Study — All Stages Of Bed Bugs Were Captured In The Verifi™ Detector Pitfall.
  27. 27. Monthly insecticide treatments initiated Date High-rise apt. building Rental office Security booth 2/14/2013 Install 2/21/2013 0 Install 2/28/2013 2 bed bugs 2 bed bugs 3/13/2013 0 2 bed bugs (dead) 5/3/2013 0 5 bed bugs (dead) 6/25/2013a 0 1 bed bug (dead) 7/2/2013 0 1 bed bug (live) 10/22/2013a 0 1 bed bug (dead) a Verifi lure components replaced in all detectors; wiped free of debris. — OSU Research Study — Results
  28. 28. a Verifi lure components replaced in all detectors; wiped free of debris. — OSU Research Study — Results Date Townhome office building Rental office Management office Community room Meeting room 3/13/2013 Install Install Install Install 3/20/2013 0 0 0 0 5/3/2013 0 0 0 0 6/25/2013a 0 0 0 0 7/2/2013 0 0 0 0 10/22/2013a 0 0 0 0 No bed bugs have been captured in Verifi detectors in the four rooms. Office personnel have expressed relief and increased peace-of-mind.
  29. 29. Second Floor Master bedroom Main Floor Family room Entry door closet Key ClimbUp Verifi — Materials & Methods — Dining room Kitchen Porch (open) Guest bedroom Bathroom Spare room ≥1 bed bug captured — Results — In a 3-week period following the 2nd (final) treatment, we captured 6 bed bugs in Verifis & 2 bed bugs in ClimbUps. 3 days after 2nd (final) treatment, we installed 24 Verifis & 4 ClimbUps.
  30. 30. Comparison of Erroneous Results with Canine Team, Dry Ice Trap, and Verifi™ Detector — OSU Research Study — 0 1 2 3 Dog 1 Dog 2 Dog 1 Dog 2 False Positive False Negative False Positive False Negative False Positive False Negative Canine Team Dry Ice Trap Verifi Detector NmberofErrrors Detection Method
  31. 31. Rutgers University Field Study August 2011 ‘Detection Tools and Techniques’ By: Changlu Wang and Richard Cooper Canine team performance (7 firms; 24 apts.) Average Range Inspection time 150 minutes 100-250 min. Cost $750 $500-1,000 Detection rate 43% 11-83% False positive rate (signaling bed bugs that weren’t there) 0-38%  Much variability among canine detection firms.  Can be a useful tool in large-scale inspections.
  32. 32. The liners consist of finely woven polyester fabric impregnated with 1.64% permethrin. The liners are kept in place on mattresses and box springs beneath bedding.
  33. 33. Bed bugs were not repelled from ActiveGuard liners TreatmentsControlsC C T C Bed Bug Movement on ActiveGuard™ Liners — OSU Research Study —
  34. 34. Words of caution regarding over-the-counter ‘natural products’ for bed bug control: • Exempt from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registration • EPA requires no efficacy data • Claims often based on “satisfied customers”—be sure to ask for their research data and evaluate it carefully • Botanical (plant based) products often have a strong odor • Botanical products often have limited, if any, residual activity
  35. 35. 25(b) Natural Products (exempt from EPA registration) FTC takes action The FTC complaint charges that the Cedarcide defendants make: • false claims that scientific studies prove Best Yet! is effective at stopping and preventing bed bug infestations, and that it is more effective than synthetic pesticides at doing so; • a false claim that the Environmental Protection Agency has warned consumers to avoid all synthetic pesticides for treating bed bug infestations; • … • false claims that Best Yet! was invented for the U.S. Army at the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and that the USDA has acknowledged the product as the number one choice of bio-based pesticides The FTC complaint charges that the RMB Group defendants make unsupported claims that Rest Easy kills and repels bed bugs, and that a consumer can create a barrier against them by spraying the product around a bed. http://ftc.gov/opa/2012/09/cedarcidermb.shtm
  36. 36. March 2013 By: Narinderpal Singh, Changlu Wang, and Richard Cooper Rutgers Univ. Study: Natural Pesticides
  37. 37. Mortality (>50%) at 10 days 100% Low mortality (<50%) 92% 60% Low mortality (<50%) Low mortality (<50%) Low mortality (<50%) Low mortality (<50%) Low mortality (<50%) Low mortality (<50%) Low mortality (<50%) 100% @ 3d Low mortality (<50%) • 60 bed bug nymphs per pesticide (presumably pyrethroid resistant) • Directly sprayed at a rate of 1 gallon/1000 ft2 Rutgers Univ. Study: Natural Pesticides Natural pesticides that ARE NOT regulated by the EPA Synthetic pesticides that ARE regulated by the EPA
  38. 38. Active Ingredient (insecticide class) Product Name(s) Imidacloprid + ß-cyfluthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Temprid® SC Chlorfenapyr (halogenated pyrrole) Phantom® SC Phantom® PI Acetamiprid + bifenthrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Transport® Mikron Transport® GHP Thiamethoxam + λ-cyhalothrin (neonicotinoid + pyrethroid) Tandem® Dinotefuran + diatomaceous earth (neonicotinoid + silica dioxide) Prescription Treatment Alpine® Dust & Alpine® PI Amorphous silica gel (silica) CimeXa™ Neem seed oil (azadirachtin) Cirkil™ CX Cirkil™ RTU Some non-pyrethroid insecticides available in the U.S. for use against bed bugs:
  39. 39. OSU Research to Evaluate Contact and Residual Efficacy of Combination Insecticides (Tandem™, Temprid™ SC, and Transport® Mikron™) Against Bed Bugs
  40. 40. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Initial 30 m 1 h 2 h 4 h 8 h Meanpercentmoribund/dead 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Initial 30 m 1 h 2 h 4 h 8 h Meanpercentmoribund/dead ̶ Results ̶ Direct Spray Pyrethroid susceptible bugs Rapid bed bug mortality is achieved through directly spraying bed bugs. Pyrethroid resistant bugs Even with highly resistant bed bugs the bugs quickly died after being sprayed with any of the 3 insecticides. Evidence of contact toxicity.
  41. 41. PlywoodFabric Efficacy of Temprid SC Residues on Plywood and Fabric Aged for 6 mo (182 d) highly resistant moderately resistant susceptible
  42. 42. March 14, 2013 http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130314/srep01456/pdf/srep01456.pdf Resistance genes were very active in the bed bug exoskeleton (skin).
  43. 43. Some Basics of Bed Bug Management Using Insecticides • There is no single “magic bullet”. • Bed bug control typically takes several treatments. • It is important to use several different formulations, and often, several different insecticides. • A residual insecticide is necessary. • Don’t keep using the same insecticide (rotate insecticide use)
  44. 44. IDENTIFICATION SERVICES Ohio State University Pest Diagnostic Clinic • Fee for identification services ($20 per insect sample) • ID wide variety of insects, arthropods, plant diseases, etc. • Online submission form: http://ppdc.osu.edu
  45. 45. Thank You! Sleep tight, and don’t let the … … well, you know the rest

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