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Risk Management - Avoiding Availability Disasters in Service-based Applications

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Bringing down an application is easy. All it takes is the failure of a single service and the entire set of services that make up the application can come crashing down like a house of cards. Just one minor error from a non-critical service can be disastrous to the entire application. There are, of course, many ways to prevent dependent services from failing. However, adding extra resiliency in non-critical services also adds complexity and cost, and sometimes it is not needed.

Application availability is best served by focusing your energies and processes on your most critical systems while working to minimize the impact of non-critical systems. Service Tiers are a way to accomplish this.

In this talk, we will learn what service tiers are and how they can be applied to service based applications. Then we will show how to utilize service tiers to keep your application available and functioning as designed. We will use example service definitions to illustrate how service tiers can help you keep your application working.

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Risk Management - Avoiding Availability Disasters in Service-based Applications

  1. 1. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Avoiding Availability Disasters in Service-based Applications Lee Atchison Senior Director Strategic Architecture at New Relic, Inc. leeatchison@leeatchison
  2. 2. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved What is a Modern Application Responsive to Customer Needs Scale Dynamically Maintain High Availability
  3. 3. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved 3 Building and Maintaining a Modern Application Flexible Architecture Instrumentation And Monitoring Dynamic Infrastructure DevOps Culture
  4. 4. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Based Application Service A Service B Service C Service D Service E Service F
  5. 5. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Failure Service A Service B Service C Service D Service E Service F X X XXX What if Service D is not critical to the success of Service A running? ?
  6. 6. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Inter-Service Failures Common Cause for Availability Issues How do you decide where to invest your time and energy? Add resiliency everywhere expensive, complex, inefficient Ignore some dependencies can be disastrous Waste time/money or make risky decisions?
  7. 7. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Mostcriticalservices Leastcriticalservices A label applied to every service
  8. 8. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Mostcriticalservices Leastcriticalservices
  9. 9. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Tier 1 Service A service where failure will result in a significant impact to customers or company bottom line
  10. 10. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved 10 Example Tier 1 Services Login Service Order Accepting Service Credit Card Processing Service
  11. 11. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Mostcriticalservices Leastcriticalservices
  12. 12. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Tier 2 Service A service where failure will result in degraded customer experience, but doesn’t prevent its use
  13. 13. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved 13 Example Tier 2 Services Search Service Order Fulfillment Service
  14. 14. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Mostcriticalservices Leastcriticalservices
  15. 15. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Tier 3 Service A service where failure will result in minimal or difficult to notice impact to customers/business
  16. 16. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved 16 Example Tier 3 Services Message of the Day Service Recommendations Service
  17. 17. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Mostcriticalservices Leastcriticalservices
  18. 18. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Tier 4 Service A service where failure will result in no or minor impact to customer/business
  19. 19. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved 19 Example Tier 4 Services Sales Report Generation Service Marketing Email Delivery Service
  20. 20. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 – Significant Impact Tier 2 – Degraded Experience Tier 3 – Limited Impact Tier 4 – No or Minor Impact A label applied to every service based on impact
  21. 21. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Example Application
  22. 22. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store
  23. 23. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Assign Tiers
  24. 24. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store
  25. 25. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved View Catalog Customers need to see products to shop for them • Website frontend • Catalog View • Catalog Database  These are all Tier 1 Services (company can’t operate without it)
  26. 26. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1
  27. 27. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Search Catalog Customers want to search for product • Catalog Search  This is a Tier 2 Service (Useful for shopping)
  28. 28. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2
  29. 29. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Catalog Editing Merchandisers need to add/update products and set prices • Catalog Editing • Price Change  These are Tier 3 Services (Not immediately impactful to customers)
  30. 30. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2 3 3
  31. 31. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Checkout Customers need to create orders • Checkout Service • Order Management • Price Calculator  These are Tier 1 Services (company cannot operate without them)
  32. 32. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1
  33. 33. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Order Processing and Shipping Fulfillment Center Agents want to • Process Orders • Ship Orders  These are Tier 3 Services (some delays have no impact on customers)
  34. 34. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3
  35. 35. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Order Status Customer wants to • See status of order  This is a Tier 2 Service (useful but not essential for customers)
  36. 36. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 2
  37. 37. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Order Report Managements wants to • See weekly status of all orders  This is a Tier 4 Service (useful internally, but delay in delivery is not serious)
  38. 38. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 2 4
  39. 39. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Using Tiers
  40. 40. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved How do I Use Service Tiers? Responsive Dependencies Expectations
  41. 41. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Responsiveness 1. Severity of the issue 2. Tier of service having the issue When an issue with a service occurs, responsiveness differs depending on the needs of the service. Your responsiveness depends on:
  42. 42. ProblemSeverity Service Tier of service with problem Low Severity High Severity Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Noncritical Perhaps next day followup acceptable Critical Immediate response needed Service Tier Helps Determine Required Responsiveness Issue #1 Issue #2
  43. 43. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved How do I Use Service Tiers? Responsive Dependencies Expectations
  44. 44. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Dependencies Compare Service Tier of a service and a dependency determines the criticalness of the dependency. Service Dependency 1 3 How you handle dependencies is determined by the comparison of Service Tiers.
  45. 45. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Critical Dependency Service Dependency 1 3 Service needs to handle dependency failures gracefully. Service is higher tier than dependency Critical Dependency: Dependency failure should not cause service to fail!
  46. 46. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Noncritical Dependency Service Dependency 13 Service can generally ignore dependency failures. Service is lower tier than dependency Noncritical Dependency: Usually acceptable for service to fail if dependency fails.
  47. 47. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Dependencies Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Serviceyoudependon Your service Critical Dependency Noncritical Dependency Service Tier Helps Determine Criticalness of Dependencies
  48. 48. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved How do I Use Service Tiers? Responsive Dependencies Expectations
  49. 49. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Higher ExpectationsCritical Dependencies Expectations Well defined SLAs • Performance • Availability Higher the service’s Service Tier, the greater the expectations for that service. Faster, higher availability, more responsive support… More Generally: Service Tier Helps Establish Appropriate Expectations of a Service
  50. 50. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved How do I Use Service Tiers? Responsive Dependencies Expectations
  51. 51. Website frontend Checkout View Order C U S T O M E R S Cat View Search Price Calculator Order Management Catalog Database Catalog Editing Price Change Merchandiser Order Processing Order Shipping Fulfillment Center Agent Weekly Order Report Management T-Shirt Store 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 2 4 Critical Dependency Noncritical Dependency Website frontend needs to handle dependency failures of Search service gracefully. View Order service can generally ignore dependency failures of Order Management service.
  52. 52. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Classic, True Story Example
  53. 53. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved True Story Avatar Example My Web Application
  54. 54. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved True Story Avatar Example My Web Application ?
  55. 55. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved True Story Avatar Example My Web Application X
  56. 56. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved True Story Avatar Example My Web Application Tier 1 Service(s) Tier 2 Service(s) Tier 4 Service
  57. 57. ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Service Tiers Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4 Mostcriticalservices Leastcriticalservices A label applied to every service Simple, basic, but critical component in performance contracts between services.
  58. 58. Thank You ©2008–18 New Relic, Inc. All rights reserved Lee Atchison Senior Director Strategic Architecture at New Relic, Inc. leeatchison@leeatchison Architecting for Scale By: Lee Atchison Published by: O’Reilly Media http://scalinginthe.cloud “#1, Top DevOps Books to read in 2018” – Apiumhub “10 Tech Books for Summer Reading” – Informaiton Week/Network Computing

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