Pronouns and Nouns


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pronouns and Nouns

  1. 1. What is a Pronoun? <ul><li>A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like &quot;he,&quot; &quot;which,&quot; &quot;none,&quot; and &quot;you&quot; to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammarians classify pronouns into several types: </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Relative pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive pronoun By: Ledys Avendaño </li></ul>
  2. 2. Example: <ul><li>1. Marge went for a walk. </li></ul><ul><li>She went for a walk. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second sentence, she is a pronoun that takes the place of the noun Marge . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common Pronouns
  4. 4. Types of pronouns <ul><li>1. Personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karen ate pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She was hungry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The word &quot; she &quot; is a personal pronoun that refers to &quot;Karen.&quot; </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of pronouns <ul><li>2. Reflexive pronouns are personal pronouns that have &quot;-self&quot; or &quot;-selves&quot; added to the end. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob finished the homework himself. </li></ul><ul><li>The reflexive pronoun is &quot; himself .&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of pronouns <ul><li>4. A demonstrative pronoun is used to single out one or more nouns referred to in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>This , that , these , and those are demonstrative pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>These lemons are sour. </li></ul><ul><li>The word &quot; these &quot; is a demonstrative pronoun . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of pronouns <ul><li>3. Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to a specific person or thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone , anybody , and, everyone are indefinite pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone stole my wallet! </li></ul><ul><li>The word &quot; someone &quot; is the indefinite pronoun . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of pronouns <ul><li>5. Interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who , whom , and which are interrogative pronouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which shoes are mine? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The word &quot; which &quot; is an interrogative pronoun . </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Types of pronouns <ul><li>6. Possessive pronouns are used to show ownership, but they never have an apostrophe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ours , his , their , and her are possessive pronouns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those are his pencils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The word &quot; his &quot; is a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>possessive pronoun . </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What is a Noun? <ul><li>A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late last year our neighbours bought a goat . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portia White was an opera singer . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bus inspector looked at all the passengers' passes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Plutarch , the library at Alexandria was destroyed in 48 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy is of little comfort to the starving . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A noun can function in a sentence as a subject , a direct object , an indirect object , a subject complement , an object complement , an appositive , an adjective or an adverb . </li></ul>
  11. 11. A noun names a person, thing or feeling
  12. 12. Types of nouns <ul><li>All nouns can be divided into common and proper nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Common nouns can then be divided into countable and uncountable nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Both countable and uncountable nouns can then be further divided into concrete and abstract nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll look at each type in turn. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Countable nouns <ul><li>Use these tests for countable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>Countable (or just “count”) nouns can be made plural: a tree… two trees; a man… men; a pony… ponies. </li></ul><ul><li>In the singular, they may have the determiner a or an : a sausage; an asterisk. </li></ul><ul><li>We ask: How many words/pages/chairs? </li></ul><ul><li>We say: A few minutes/friends/chips? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Uncountable nouns <ul><li>Use these tests for uncountable nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>Uncountable (or non-count) nouns cannot be made plural. We cannot say: two funs, three advices or five furnitures . </li></ul><ul><li>We never use a or an with them. </li></ul><ul><li>We ask: How much money/time/milk? (Not How many? ) </li></ul><ul><li>We say: A little help/effort. (Not A few. ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Concrete nouns <ul><li>Concrete nouns are the words that most people think of as nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>They are mostly the names of objects and animals (countable) and substances or materials (uncountable). </li></ul><ul><li>Cake, oxygen, iron, boy, dog, pen, glass, pomegranate, earthworm and door are all concrete nouns. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Abstract nouns <ul><li>Abstract nouns name ideas, feelings and qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Most, though not all, are uncountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are derived from adjectives and verbs and have characteristic endings such as –ity, -ness, -ence, and -tion. </li></ul><ul><li>They are harder to recognise as nouns than the concrete variety. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Proper nouns <ul><li>Proper nouns start with capital letters. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the names of people, places, times, organisations etc. </li></ul><ul><li>They refer to unique individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are not found in the dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>They often occur in pairs or groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some examples. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Common nouns <ul><li>All nouns which are not proper nouns are common nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>A few examples: cup, art, paper, work, frog, bicycle, atom, family, mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Common nouns are either countable or uncountable . </li></ul>