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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
Dr. Shirley Mo-chin...
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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
This paper is to hi...
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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
Aesthetic Formulati...
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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
“Sigma” is a symbol...
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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
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International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands
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Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching; Management for Curriculum Position Statement

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Paper for 2nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education
Curriculum design and delivery of lectures can be integrated with green elements in the teaching and learning process - service delivery. In fact, there is a keen competition among educational institutes under globalization and explosion of technology. It is time for faculty members to re-visit the ways of minimizing the time of service delivery with the concept of Six Sigma but maximizing the outputs of the teaching and learning process.

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Yeung, Shirley Mo-ching; Management for Curriculum Position Statement

  1. 1. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands Dr. Shirley Mo-ching Yeung Quality Assurance Director/ Assistant Professor Department of Supply Chain Management Hang Seng Management College (HSMC), Hong Kong Linking WuWei (Daoism) with Contextualization via QFD for System Thinking According to UNESCO (2010), Education for sustainability (EfS) has international priority, as emphasised by the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD 2005-2014), which seeks to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning, in order to address the social, economic, cultural and environmental problems we face in the 21st century (UNESCO, 2010, p.1). As innovative and proactive educational practitioners, it is believed that the objectives, learning outcomes, activities (in-class and/ or out-of-the class) and assessments have to be well-planned and penetrated with spiritual and real life elements, for example Wuwei and connectivity of Daoism to develop system thinking and widen the horizon of learners via the use of Six Sigma – Quality of Deployment (QFD). Apart from the above rationale of education for sustainability put forward by UNESCO, the findings of Yeung (2014) from literature of the past 10 years also highlighted that there were five factors for green service delivery, they were: 1) Organizational mission with quality concepts; 2) Staff management with caring mindset; 3) Strategy with green elements; 4) Technology with removing waste and streamlining operational processes; and 5) Economic returns with increase in total revenue in green services delivery. Curriculum design and delivery of lectures can be integrated with green elements in the teaching and learning process - service delivery. In fact, there is a keen competition among educational institutes under globalization and explosion of technology. It is time for faculty members to re-visit the ways of minimizing the time of service delivery with the concept of Six Sigma but maximizing the outputs of the teaching and learning process, for example, integrating spiritual and real life elements into specific disciplinary modules in supply chain management (SCM) (for example, module of Current Issues in SCM) to fulfill the needs of the community for sustainability.
  2. 2. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands This paper is to highlight the importance of integrating WuWei (Daoism) with disciplinary knowledge to benefit the learners in developing a cross-cutting ability to perceive the world from a wider perspective and also to provide an insight to faculty members on the use of Six Sigma (refer to Figure 1.0) - integrating disciplinary knowledge of supply chain management with WuWei and Six Sigma concepts of SIPOC and QFD of Six Sigma. Ultimately, both the learners and the faculty members will develop system thinking with creativity for sustainability. Contextualization of Contents via WuWei In this paper, it is intended to explore the use of WuWei (Daoism and connectivity) to increase the awareness of faculty members that integrating this kind of spiritual elements into the disciplinary knowledge of SCM in a given scenario can increase the understanding of the true self for harmony, for life-long innovation and finally for a sustainable curriculum. Based on the eight qualitative interviews with scholars from Canada, the U.S., Malaysia, Macau, Hong Kong who have experience in GE curriculum design; and literature on Daoism and Quantum skills model, it is found that the ideas of Daoism – WuWei (non-action) can be integrated with subject-based module to increase the awareness of “connectivity” for harmony and life-long innovation that is beneficial to undergraduate students. In fact, this kind of cross-disciplinary design of curriculum for harmony and life-long innovation is needed to meet the challenges of the dynamic external environment. This study highlights the ideas of “WuWei” (non-action): minimizing force, interference and intervention, and within the context of the Dao, harmonizing oneself with the patterns and pulses of the cosmos (Nixon, 2006) to complement with the findings of the cross-boundary interviews on GE. Barrett (2011) mentioned that WuWei was first and foremost a special way of comporting oneself in the world: more specifically, it was a form of action distinguished by 1) fine-tuned responsiveness or skill, 2) non-deliberative spontaneity, 3) effortless, and 4) enjoyment. This composite picture of WuWei was incomplete, however, as it remained vague in precisely the respect that was presently under investigation, that was, the respect in which these traits combine to present in an image of ultimate or spiritual fulfillment. Chen (2005) made a remarkable comment on WuWei in his article of “Thinking ‘the Unthinkable’ and Teaching ‘the Impossible’ East-West Dialogue through ‘Chaos’ of
  3. 3. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands Aesthetic Formulation, Butterfly Effect of Sagely Action, and Responsive and Responsible WuWei of De” that no flow with the flow was no longer for the purpose to ‘fit in’ but to transform or to effect changes within, the system that one fitted in. Fitting in thus became simultaneously the means and the needs itself for transformation. In this case, the self in Daoism was a fractal itself, one that potentially could seamlessly interweave its being with the affinitive systems, or attractors in the world, whose organization was now recognized to transcend classic dimensionality. He mentioned that we humans could do in the world was so little, it would be better for people to understand the philosophy of “a Yin Thought – System” in which the particular capitulated to the demands of its environment and ‘flows with the tao’ – WeWei then became literally ‘doing nothing’. Consequently, Chen encouraged students to talk about their experience with images created through the enriched image-making, way-making, world-creating, or Dao-carving language that should produce as much meaning –making ripples as it would be with any thought-provoking flapping of the butterfly. “We should encourage them to describe in as much detail as possible not just for correctness but relevancy, not just for clear language but strong language, not just for denotation but evocativeness as well. We should let the vibration of their mind go. We should let ‘butterfly’ of their feeling transform with the echoes and ripples of the pond, the evoked rhythm and pulses of their lives. We should actively employ theories that emphasize non-cognitive function of language with the implication of the Dao, the chaos theory, and ‘aesthetic composition’for the dynamic and broad vision of life.” (Chen, 2005, pp. 174) Hence, spirituality with WuWei and real life activities with inspiration, integration, and multi-disciplinary knowledge outside the classroom are recommended to develop a broad mindset for students to change and to generate innovation, for example, missionary trip, residential College life, College-wide assembly, company visits with the use of Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma for process improvement…etc. Customization of Contents via Six Sigma As curriculum design activities are situational – based on the needs and wants, requirements, and expectations of stakeholders, using systematic thinking for building inter-relationship of components in curriculum design is very important.
  4. 4. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands “Sigma” is a symbol meaning how much deviation exists in a set of data. It is used to identify the number of defects within the production process. For service industries or social service organizations in relation to organization culture, it can be interpreted as defects in working relationship and communication that affect organizational performance. The aim of this research is to make use of the idea “Quality Function Deployment (QFD)” in Six Sigma to outline the requirements of internal customers – curriculum designers and external customers – employers and accreditation bodies in supply chain management (SCM) programme design to match the system thinking of Six Sigma – SIPOC and the contents and activities expected from the community. The matrix of House of Quality in Six Sigma can help reduce defects – mismatch of deliverables. When designing the House of Quality for matching the concepts of SIPOC (Suppliers, Inputs, Processes, Outputs, Customers) of Six Sigma and the contents of a supply-chain related module, the author has collected relevant data through literature on WuWei and General Education, and interview with scholars on curriculum design to increase reliability. In the following figure 1.0 of QFD, it is understood that inputs and processes are important in curriculum design to enhance the learning outcomes of WuWei for spiritual development, and current issues of SCM – green and ethics for knowledge development. And, the learning process is tied up closely with the customers (i.e. learners). If the learning activities and assessments are coherent with support from relevant departments, for example General Education and Supply Chain Management Department, the expected learning outcomes of learners will be achieved. Hence, it is strongly recommended to adopt the system thinking of Six Sigma in curriculum design for sustainability.
  5. 5. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands Fig. 1.0 Integrating SIPOC with contextualization of contents for Employability and Sustainability 0 0 0 Contextualizati on of Contents (Literature Review and Interview Results) Score of Importanc e Suppliers (faculty with knowledge and practice of WuWei) Inputs (College mission with quality concepts) Processes (faculty and supporting staff with system thinking, lean Six Sigma, green mindset of service delivery to streamline operational processes) Outputs (economic returns with increase in total revenue in green services delivery) Customers (learners with sustained learning outcomes serving the communit) e.g. Spirituality of WuWei 9 7 Department of General Education (Generic) for Daoism 9 Current SCM Issues with arguments on green, ethics, transformat ion..etc. , e.g. toxic substances in children garment of LV 9 Engage experience d faculty from Dept. of GE and SCM for team teaching to highlight the importance of educating 9 The level of system thinking l can be enhanced with cross disciplinary knowledge 9 Holistic system thinking and lean six sigma concept will be developed via paper of this kind
  6. 6. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands New regulations imposed in countries Opinion from industry practitioner s and academics staff with responsibili ty in managing issues in SCM Create contextuali zed environ- ment for students (e.g. learning outside the classroom) Diarize the pros and cons of issues for stakeholder map analysis Team spirit of teachers from GE and SCM can be strengthene d Application skill of students can be enhanced via discussion of current issues in SCM with WuWei e.g. College-wide Assembly 7 7 9 7 9 9 e.g. Residential College Life with faculty / industry practitioners as mentors 9 7 9 9 7 9 Total : 25 21 27 25 25 27
  7. 7. 2 nd International Conference on Lean Six Sigma for Higher Education June 2014 Arnhem, The Netherlands Target Areas for Improvement: Engagement of Departments Procedures to align vision/ mission and staff for curriculum design Increase creativity & competency of teachers in module design and delivery On-going generic measurement of outputs (learners/ teachers/ industries) with evidence for improvement On-going systematic tools for measuring specific learning outcomes for employ- ability and sustainability For the future research area, it is suggested to design a cross-disciplinary GE module with elements of Daoism, meditation, yoga to broaden the learning experiences of undergraduate students for life-long innovation with harmony and transformation for sustainability. Key words : Daoism/ WuWei, harmony, life-long innovation, General Education (GE), sustainability

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