Introduction to learning_and_instruction


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Introduction to learning_and_instruction

  1. 1. Introduction to Learning and Instruction <ul><li>Wild boy from Frost and Dr. Itard 의 경험 (5 가지의 원칙으로 훈련 ) </li></ul><ul><li>그림 1-1 에서 예측해보기 </li></ul><ul><li>Itard 는 자신의 경험을 통하여 교육의 역할을 ( 인간발달을 위해서는 사회가 중요하다 . 인간은 자신의 요구를 만족하기 위하여 학습한다 . 교육프로그램은 과학에 기초해야 한다 ( 현대과학내지는 의학의 도움으로 인간은 보다 완벽해질 수 있다 ). 교육성과의 개인차 ) </li></ul><ul><li>이 책에서 추구하는 바 (Itard 의 경험이 시사하는 바 ), the overarching goals (learner-centered approach)= understand the cognitive processes and knowledge used by learners in carrying out learning tasks . how to help students develop the cognitive processes used by skilled practitioners to perform academic tasks . </li></ul>
  2. 2. Instruction <ul><li>Gagne(1974, p.vii) “the arrangement of external events to activate and support the internal processes of learning” </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction is something the teacher ( Instructional Delivery System: added ) does. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of instruction is to promote learning in the student. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning <ul><li>Lasting changes in the learner’s knowledge where such changes are due to experience .(어떤 변화에 주안점을 두느냐에 따라 학습을 보는 관점을 달리하는 다양한 이론들이 등장 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Three approaches to research on learning and instruction <ul><li>Behaviorist approach (the effects of some observable manipulation on some observable behavior.) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive approach (how instructional procedures influence internal information-processing events and the acquire cognitive knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual approach (instructional methods can not be separated from the context in which they are used (actually implemented) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three roads for Psychology in Education <ul><li>표 1-1(11쪽) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three metaphors of learning <ul><li>Strengthening a connection (adding new behaviors to your repertoire)—learning as response strengthening </li></ul><ul><li>Adding files to a file cabinet (adding new facts and skills to your knowledge base)—learning as knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Building a model (understanding how to fit pieces of information together)---learning as knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>(14 쪽 표 1-4) </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Cognitive Theory of Meaningful (or Multimedia) Learning: CTML <ul><li>목표: understanding how instructional manipulations affect changes in the learner knowledge (changes in learning strategies and the structure of memory)= construction of knowledge . </li></ul><ul><li>그림 1-3을 보자 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Three principles of learning <ul><li>Dual channels principle - People have separate channels for processing visual and verbal materials (Baddeley, 1999; Paivio, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>The limited capacity principle – People are able to actively process only a limited amount of material in a channel at one time at WORKING MEMORY . </li></ul><ul><li>The active learning principle — Meaningful learning occurs when learners engage in appropriate cognitive process by attending(selecting) to relevant information, organizing the information into a coherent structure, and integrating representations with each other and prior knowledge retrieved from LTM (Mayer, 2005). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Three memory stores in meaningful learning <ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Working Memory (Short-Term Memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>(표1-4) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Three cognitive processes in meaningful learning <ul><li>Selecting : Sifting out relevant from irrelevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing : connections among the incoming pieces of information </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating : constructing external connections between the newly organized knowledge in WM and existing knowledge. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What we learned (knowledge) <ul><li>Fact </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts: a person’s representation of categories, schemas, principles and model of a domain </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>( 표 1-6) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Six Factors in the learning-Instructional process <ul><li>Instructional manipulation (Ways of teaching and organizing the materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Learner characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Learning context </li></ul><ul><li>Learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcome (No learning…) </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome performance </li></ul>
  13. 13. Three types of learning outcomes <ul><li>No Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Rote Learning (only selecting and retention performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful Learning </li></ul>
  14. 14. Three kinds of cognitive load <ul><li>Intrinsic cognitive load </li></ul><ul><li>Extraneous cognitive load </li></ul><ul><li>Germane cognitive load </li></ul>
  15. 15. The challenge of teaching for transfer <ul><li>Transfer of learning : the effect of previous learning on new learning. (when a person uses knowledge from previous learning to help learn something new) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving transfer : the effect of previous learning on new problem solving. (….. to devise a solution to a new problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive, negative, and neutral transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Specific, General, Mixed Transfer ( 표 1-10) </li></ul>