Dr Jacob Habgood, Head of Serious Games, Sumo Digital

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Dr Jacob Habgood, Head of Serious Games, Sumo Digital presents the "10 minute Ph.D" as part of the Game Based Learning in Practice session at Game Based Learning 2009

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  • Nice ideas, just what I was thinking of....So the take away is that games for education could be more effective, but less efficient, similar to, say, hands-on or outdoor activities in the case of science related subject (e.g., ecology, water quality)? ....
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Dr Jacob Habgood, Head of Serious Games, Sumo Digital

  1. 1. The Ten Minute Ph.D. Chocolate, Broccoli and Skeletons <ul><li>Dr. Jacob Habgood </li></ul><ul><li>Head of Serious Games, Sumo-Digital Limited </li></ul>
  2. 2. From Industry <ul><li>Lead Programmer / Technical Lead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gremlin / Infogrames / Atari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MicroMachines (PS2, Xbox, GC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hogs of War (PSX, PC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actua Sports (PSX) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reloaded (PSX)… </li></ul></ul></ul>Hogs of War ELSPA Silver Sales Award Electronics Boutique’s Best Multi-Player Game of 2001
  3. 3. To Academia <ul><li>The University of Nottingham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Learning Sciences Research Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Chocolate-Covered Broccoli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor marriage of games and learning </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Little Bit of Psychology <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation (Deci and Ryan) Engaging in an activity for its own sake with no obvious external incentive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to the concept of flow (Csikszentmihalyi* ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being “in the zone”: total concentration, distorted sense of time, and extension of self. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video games have it… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education would like it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective learning? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer time-on-task? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Chick-sent-me-high </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “ Edutainment” <ul><li>Failed to harness intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shavian Reversal (Papert, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate-Covered Broccoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bargain Bin” Products </li></ul></ul>We should have a child together. With my body and your brains, what a wonder it would be! Yes, but what if it had my body and your brains?
  6. 6. Intrinsic Integration (Habgood, Ainsworth and Benford, 2005) <ul><li>Better Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate the game mechanics and learning content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ mechanism through which players make meaningful choices and arrive at a meaningful play experience” (Salen & Zimmerman, 2004). </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Zombie Division <ul><li>A Gaming Episode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to empirically test the value of our definition of intrinsic integration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is this integration better or worse for motivation and learning . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrasting Versions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two versions that differ only in the way in which they integrate their learning content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Zombie Division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Zombie Division </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Intrinsic Game <ul><li>Core Mechanic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action-adventure game. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeating numbered enemies by attacking them with a weapon that divides their number into whole parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons map to different divisors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by a multiplication grid. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Intrinsic Game
  10. 10. Extrinsic Game <ul><li>Core Mechanic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enemies labelled with symbols which show their vulnerability to weapons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons map to controls only. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple choice questions at end of level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by a multiplication grid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identical numbers to those in the intrinsic version (on the skeletons). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Extrinsic Game
  12. 12. Control Game
  13. 13. Study 1: Motivation <ul><li>Version Switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class of 9-11 year olds attending a regular after school club. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free switching between versions of ZD or their usual club pursuits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No loss of progress for switching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorded time playing ZD over 2½ hours of potential play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy group interview at end. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Study 1: Results <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children spent significantly longer playing the intrinsic than extrinsic (61% vs. 8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls spent statistically longer playing intrinsic than boys! (84% vs. 50%). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ more fun because it’s like subliminal advertising with maths.” (intrinsic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ you think: oh I’ve had the fun part, now I have to do a test – I’m just going to turn it off and not bother.” (extrinsic) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Study 2: Learning <ul><li>Fixed Time-on-Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fifty-nine, 7 and 8 year olds </li></ul></ul>W.E. W.E. 35 minutes on game. Delayed-test 25 2 weeks Post-test 11 20 mins on game 7-8 30 mins reflection + 20 mins game. 6 20 mins on game 4-5 Pre-Test Day 1
  16. 16. Study 2: Results <ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger overall percentage gains (15%pts). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage gains between post and delayed were significantly higher for the intrinsic (7%pts) than extrinsic (<1%pts) or control (<1%pts) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can create more motivating and more effective learning games by creating a closer integration between a game and its learning content. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They may take longer to produce and be more difficult to re-purpose… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss :-) </li></ul></ul></ul>Take Away Message:
  18. 18. Zombie Division (okay so they’re not actually zombies – but they’re close)

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