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Internet of Things Reference Architectures
trying not to get lost in the jungle
Alessandro Bassi
ALESSANDRO BASSI CONSULTI...
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here?
Beyond RFID: The Internet of Things
Joint EU-EPoSS Workshop
(held in Feb 2008)
...
Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here?
Technical Coordinator of ioT-A (lighthouse
Project for Objective 1.3 - Internet...
Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here?
Expert for ENISA on risks related to IoT
Technology (Flying 2.0)
Risks related ...
Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here?
Expert for the EU Commission on IoT
Helping policymakers at EU Parliament
First...
www.bassiconsulting.eu
What is the "Internet of Things"?
40+ definitions ....
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Pick your own definition is ...
1 2 pots of yogurt talking with each other
2 Things having identities and virtual personali...
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
AIOTI
ALLIANCE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS INNOVATION
4
AIOTI WG3 IoT standardization landscape
AIOTI
ALLIANCE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS INNOVATION
5
Many related vertical and horizontal activities
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
IoT-A Fact Sheet
Flagship FP7 IP project,call 5,
Objective 1.3
Total Budget 18.6 M EUR
17 Partners from 8 EU
countries
Coo...
IoT Domain - 2010 status
Vertical silos
Fragmented architectures, no coherent unifying concepts,
solutions exist only for ...
Introducing the IoT-A tree:
a generic Reference
Model, derived from
Business considerations,
application-based
requirement...
Definitions
Reference Model
A Reference Model is an abstract framework for understanding
significant relationships among the...
Architectural Reference Model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
1
Bassi·Bauer·Fiedler
Kramp·vanKranenburg
Lange·MeissnerEds.
Alessandro Bassi · Martin Bauer · Martin Fiedler ·Thorsten Kr...
Heterogeneous Architectures
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
IoT-A reference model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Domain Model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Functional Model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Functional Model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Matching views and perspectives
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Communication Model: Channel Analysis
Standard Internet Model
IoT Model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
oneM2M
oneM2M is a specification for an M2M service layer being
standardised by a range of national and regional SDOs in th...
oneM2M, current Specifications
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
oneM2M, functional Architecture
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
oneM2M Functional Architecture
Application Entity (AE)
Application Entity provides Application logic for the end-to-end
M2...
oneM2M Functional Architecture
Common Services Entity (CSE)
A Common Services Entity comprises the set of ”service
functio...
oneM2M Functional Architecture
Underlying Network Services Entity (NSE)
An Underlying Network Services Entity provides ser...
Configurations supported by oneM2M Architecture
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
oneM2M, Common Service Functions
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
ITU-T Reference Model
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
AIOTI
ALLIANCE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS INNOVATION
❖ AIOTI WG03 IoT Reference Architecture
➢ Consolidation of IoT reference ...
Outline
1 Who am I?
2 Internet of Things - RA Standards
3 Internet of Things - Architecture
4 oneM2M
5 ITU-T
6 AIOTI
7 FI-...
FI-WARE
Main Concepts
FI-WARE identifies Generic Enablers (GE) as "common
bricks" on top of which each sector can develop s...
FI-WARE IoT architecture
Thank you for your attention
www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
Alessandro Bassi- Internet of Things a reference architecture jungle survival map
Alessandro Bassi- Internet of Things a reference architecture jungle survival map
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Alessandro Bassi- Internet of Things a reference architecture jungle survival map

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We all know that too many standards means no standard. So, why in the Reference Architecture field every Standardization Institute or alliance is developing and/or promoting a different standard?

The IoT_A project, funded by the European Commission, was the first attempt to try to give to this filed a Reference Model and a Reference Architecture, back in 2010-2013. However, since then, there has been a sequence of efforts in this field, from “de jure” (such as IEEE P2413 or ISO/IEC 30141) or “de facto” (such as the Industrial Internet Consortium).

Considering as well that all major corporations are in most of these efforts, is there a need for all this replicated effort? Or actually, all these RA are complementary and referring to different aspects, so that only the title is the same for confusing non-esoteric people?

Therefore, the goal of the presentation is to explore all different efforts and to see the convergence, the synergy or the conflict between different groups, and give the audience the tools for deciding which RA (if any) to choose for any specific IoT project they want to run.

Alessandro Bassi

Published in: Software
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Alessandro Bassi- Internet of Things a reference architecture jungle survival map

  1. 1. Internet of Things Reference Architectures trying not to get lost in the jungle Alessandro Bassi ALESSANDRO BASSI CONSULTING alessandro@bassiconsulting.eu January 16, 2016 www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  2. 2. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  3. 3. Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here? Beyond RFID: The Internet of Things Joint EU-EPoSS Workshop (held in Feb 2008) more than 80 experts discussing for 2 days on 4 areas: People, Vision, Technology, Processes www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  4. 4. Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here? Technical Coordinator of ioT-A (lighthouse Project for Objective 1.3 - Internet of Things) 18.6 M EUR Budget Heavy industrial participation (Siemens, IBM, NEC, Alcatel-Lucent, Telefonica, SAP, ...) Main Objective, to realise a Reference Architectural Model for the IoT (from INTRAnets of Things to INTERnet of Things) www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  5. 5. Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here? Expert for ENISA on risks related to IoT Technology (Flying 2.0) Risks related to adoption of IoT Technologies in different aspects of everyday’s life Identification of threats, risks and vulnerabilities and suggestions for policymakers www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  6. 6. Practical Infos - Who am I? Why am I here? Expert for the EU Commission on IoT Helping policymakers at EU Parliament First topics Privacy/Security and Governance of IoT www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  7. 7. www.bassiconsulting.eu
  8. 8. What is the "Internet of Things"? 40+ definitions .... www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  9. 9. Pick your own definition is ... 1 2 pots of yogurt talking with each other 2 Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental and user contexts 3 Combination of item identification (RFID), detection (sensors) and interaction (nanoactuators) of environmental changes 4 The IoT is the superset of all objects that are uniquely identifiable and for which is possible to specify a semantic and a behaviour 5 etc etc .... www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  10. 10. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  11. 11. AIOTI ALLIANCE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS INNOVATION 4 AIOTI WG3 IoT standardization landscape
  12. 12. AIOTI ALLIANCE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS INNOVATION 5 Many related vertical and horizontal activities
  13. 13. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  14. 14. IoT-A Fact Sheet Flagship FP7 IP project,call 5, Objective 1.3 Total Budget 18.6 M EUR 17 Partners from 8 EU countries Coordinator: Gunter Kuelzhammer Technical Coordinator: Alessandro Bassi Start Date: Sept 1st, 2010 Duration: 39 months. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  15. 15. IoT Domain - 2010 status Vertical silos Fragmented architectures, no coherent unifying concepts, solutions exist only for specific application silos. No coherent approaches to implement the IoT have been proposed, yet. Many island solutions do exist (RFID, Sensor nets, etc.). Little cross-sectorial re-use of technology and exchange of knowledge. The development is geared towards Intranets of Things. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  16. 16. Introducing the IoT-A tree: a generic Reference Model, derived from Business considerations, application-based requirements and current technologies, able to generate different Reference architectures depending on domain-specific requirements, to be used as a blueprint for concrete architecture design.
  17. 17. Definitions Reference Model A Reference Model is an abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment. It enables the development of specific reference architectures. A Reference Model consists of a minimal set of unifying concepts, axioms and relationships Reference Architecture A Reference Architecture is an architectural design pattern that indicates how an abstract set of relationships realises a set of requirements. The main purpose of a RA is to provide guidance for the development of concrete architectures. More reference architectures may be derived from a common reference model. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  18. 18. Architectural Reference Model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  19. 19. 1 Bassi·Bauer·Fiedler Kramp·vanKranenburg Lange·MeissnerEds. Alessandro Bassi · Martin Bauer · Martin Fiedler ·Thorsten Kramp · Rob van Kranenburg Sebastian Lange · Stefan Meissner  Editors EnablingThings toTalk Designing IoT solutions with the IoT Architectural Reference Model Enabling Things toTalk Alessandro Bassi Martin Bauer Martin Fiedler Thorsten Kramp Rob van Kranenburg Sebastian Lange Stefan Meissner  Editors Computer Science EnablingThingstoTalk Designing IoT solutions with the IoT Architectural Reference Model The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging network superstructure that will connect physical resources and actual users.It will support an ecosystem of smart applications and services bringing hyper-connectivity to our society by using augmented and rich interfaces.Whereas in the beginning IoT referred to the advent of barcodes and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which helped to automate inventory, tracking and basic identification, today IoT is characterized by a dynamic trend toward connecting smart sensors,objects,devices,data and applications.The next step will be“cognitive IoT,” facilitating object and data re-use across application domains and leveraging hypercon- nectivity,interoperability solutions and semantically enriched information distribution. The Architectural Reference Model (ARM), presented in this book by the members of the IoT-A project team driving this harmonization effort,makes it possible to connect vertically closed systems, architectures and application areas so as to create open interoperable systems and integrated environments and platforms. It constitutes a foundation from which software companies can capitalize on the benefits of developing consumer-oriented platforms including hardware, software and services. The material is structured in two parts.PartA introduces the general concepts developed for and applied in the ARM.It is aimed at end users who want to use IoT technologies, managers interested in understanding the opportunities generated by these novel technologies,and system architects who are interested in an overview of the underlying basic models. It also includes several case studies to illustrate how the ARM has been used in real-life scenarios. Part B then addresses the topic at a more detailed technical level and is targeted at readers with a more scientific or technical background.It provides in-depth guidance on theARM,including a detailed description of a process for generating concrete architectures, as well as reference manuals with guidelines on how to use the various models and perspectives presented to create a concrete architecture.Furthermore, best practices and tips on how system engineers can use the ARM to develop specific IoT architectures for dedicated IoT solutions are illustrated and exemplified in reverse mapping exercises of existing standards and platforms. 9 7 8 3 6 4 2 4 0 4 0 2 3 ISBN 978-3-642-40402-3 Available for free download
  20. 20. Heterogeneous Architectures www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  21. 21. IoT-A reference model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  22. 22. Domain Model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  23. 23. Functional Model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  24. 24. Functional Model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  25. 25. Matching views and perspectives www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  26. 26. Communication Model: Channel Analysis Standard Internet Model IoT Model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  27. 27. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  28. 28. oneM2M oneM2M is a specification for an M2M service layer being standardised by a range of national and regional SDOs in the hope that this will lead to a single global standard (as occurred with 3GPP for cellular). Partner standard organisations include ARIB (Japan) ATIS (America) CCSA (China) ETSI (Europe) TIA (America) TTA (Korea) TTC (Japan) www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  29. 29. oneM2M, current Specifications www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  30. 30. oneM2M, functional Architecture www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  31. 31. oneM2M Functional Architecture Application Entity (AE) Application Entity provides Application logic for the end-to-end M2M solutions. Examples of the Application Entities can be fleet tracking application, remote blood sugar monitoring application, or remote power metering and controlling application. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  32. 32. oneM2M Functional Architecture Common Services Entity (CSE) A Common Services Entity comprises the set of ”service functions” common to the M2M environments. Such service functions are exposed to other entities through Reference Points Mca and Mcc. Reference point Mcn is used for accessing Underlying Network Service Entities. Examples of service functions offered by CSE are: Data Management, Device Management, M2M Subscription Management, Location Services etc. Such "sub-functions" offered by a CSE may be logically apprehended as Common Services Functions (CSFs). Inside a CSE, some of the CSFs can be mandatory and others can be optional. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  33. 33. oneM2M Functional Architecture Underlying Network Services Entity (NSE) An Underlying Network Services Entity provides services to the CSEs. Examples of such services include device management, location services and device triggering. No particular organization of the NSEs is assumed. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  34. 34. Configurations supported by oneM2M Architecture www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  35. 35. oneM2M, Common Service Functions www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  36. 36. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  37. 37. ITU-T Reference Model www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  38. 38. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  39. 39. AIOTI ALLIANCE FOR INTERNET OF THINGS INNOVATION ❖ AIOTI WG03 IoT Reference Architecture ➢ Consolidation of IoT reference architecture from many sources, i.e. IoT-A, IEEE P2413, OneM2M, ITU-T, ISO/IEC JTC1 ➢ Architectural views based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 7 A consolidated high level IoT Reference Architecture “Things” IoT Device User invokes IoT Service exposes associated Virtual Entity Interacts with Legend contingenton communication “symbolic” models & tracks ❑ Functional model:❑ Domain model:
  40. 40. Outline 1 Who am I? 2 Internet of Things - RA Standards 3 Internet of Things - Architecture 4 oneM2M 5 ITU-T 6 AIOTI 7 FI-WARE www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  41. 41. FI-WARE Main Concepts FI-WARE identifies Generic Enablers (GE) as "common bricks" on top of which each sector can develop specific technologies. A FI-WARE Instance is an implementation of needed GE. A version with all FI-WARE instances, called ”FI-WARE Testbed” allows Use Case projects and third parties to run and test Future Internet Applications based on FI-WARE Generic Enablers. www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle
  42. 42. FI-WARE IoT architecture
  43. 43. Thank you for your attention www.bassiconsulting.eu IoT RA Jungle

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