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# Introduction to computers

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This slides present a knowledge of computer, memory, programming languages etc. That is required before learning C programming language.

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### Introduction to computers

1. 1. C Programming Language By: Yogendra Pal yogendra@learnbywatch.com Dedicated to My mother and Father
2. 2. t y Keep your notebook with you. Write important point and questions that comes in your mind Solve Mind band exercise. C Rewind when not clear Ask Questions by call or SMS or by mail Keep Watching Keep Learning THIS IS INTRODUCTION 2
3. 3. Computer • Electronic Device • Store, Manipulate and Transmit data. • Data can be – Numeric – Character (Name, Address etc.) – Graphics data (Charts, Photographs, Videos) – Sound (Music, Speech etc.) 3
4. 4. Computer… • Two very important for a programmer – Numeric – Character • Scientific and Engineering Applications – Numeric • Business applications – Numeric and Character 4
5. 5. Memory • Every information is stored in binary code. • Binary code is the sequence of 0s and 1s. • 0 and 1 are called bits. • 0 represents OFF and 1 represents ON. • 8 bits makes 1 byte. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 • Character takes one byte to store. 5
6. 6. Memory… • Bit is the smallest unit of information storage. • Bit consists a single binary digit (0 or 1). • We can interpreted 0 and 1 as: – 0 : False : Off – 1 : True : On 6
7. 7. Memory… • 1 bit consists 0 or 1. • 8 bits makes a byte. • 210 (1024) byte make a Kilobyte or KB. • 210 (1024) Kilobyte make a Megabyte or MB. • 210 (1024) Megabyte make a Gigabyte or GB. • 210 (1024) Gigabyte make a Terabyte or TB. Bit < Byte < KB < MB < GB < TB 7
8. 8. Machine needs instructions I o ć 8
9. 9. Programming Language • Machine Language • Assembly Language • High-Level Language 9
10. 10. Machine Language • Strings of numbers giving machine specific instructions. • Also known as Machine code. Example: +1300042774 +1400593419 +1200274027 10
11. 11. Machine Language… • Very Few programs are written in machine language because:- – It is very difficult to work with machine language. – Program written for one type of computer will not run on other type of computer (Each type of computer has it’s own instruction set). 11
12. 12. Assembly Language • English-like abbreviations representing elementary computer operations. • Simpler than machine language. Example: LOAD BASEPAY ADD OVERPAY STORE GROSSPAY • Translate in machine code before execute. • Translation is done by assembler. 12
13. 13. High-level Languages • Codes similar to everyday English (Easy to understand). • Use mathematical notations. • Example – grossPay = basePay + overTimePay • Translate in machine code before execute. • Translation is done by compiler or interpreter. 13
14. 14. High level languages… • The program written in high level language is known as source code or source program. • The compiled source code results in machine- language. • Machine language code is also known as object code or object program. 14
15. 15. Compiler vs. Interpreter • Interpreter reads the source code one line at a time convert it into machine code. • Compiler reads the entire program and converts it into machine code. • machine code is a code that the computer can run directly. • machine code also known as object code or binary code. 15
16. 16. Program • Using programming language we create instructions or set of instructions. • This set of instructions is also knows as computer program or software program or just program. • Example programs or softwares: – Word processing program – Computer Games or video games 16
17. 17. History of C • Evolved by Dennis Ritchie in 1970 at Bell Telephone Laboratories from two previous programming languages, BCPL and B. • Used to develop UNIX. • Used to write modern operating systems. • Hardware independent (portable). • Standard created in 1989, updated in 1999. BCPL B C Martin Richards Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie 17
18. 18. C: A Middle Level Language • Best elements of high level language and control and flexibility of assembly language. • C allows the direct manipulation of bits, bytes and addresses. • C has several built in data types. • Permits type conversion. • No run time error checking. • Well suited for system-level programming. 18
19. 19. The C Standard Library • C programs consist of pieces/modules called functions. – A programmer can create his own functions. • Advantage: the programmer knows exactly how it works • Disadvantage: time consuming – Programmers will often use the C library functions. • Use these as building blocks 19
20. 20. C Standard Library… • Avoid re-inventing the wheel – If a premade function exists, generally best to use it rather than write your own – Library functions carefully written, efficient, and portable 20
21. 21. Other High-level Languages • Other high-level languages – FORTRAN • Used for scientific and engineering applications – COBOL • Used to manipulate large amounts of data – Pascal • Intended for academic use 21
22. 22. Structured Programming • Disciplined approach to writing programs. • Functions are the building blocks of programs. • Allow you to code separate tasks in a program, make your program modular. • Clear, easy to test and debug and easy to modify. • C is a structured programming language. 22
23. 23. Library and Linking • Library : Collection of functions. • Linker : Combines the called function object code with the code you written. 23
24. 24. Program Development • Edit : Program is created in the editor and stored on disk. • Preprocess: Preprocess program processes the code • Compile : Compiler creates object code and stores it on disk. • Link : Linker links the object code with the libraries. • Load : Loader loads program in memory. • Execute : CPU takes each insruction and executes it. 24
25. 25. Form of C program • The main() function must present in program. • Keywords can not used as a variable name or a function name. • Case sensitive language. – else  ELSE  • It may have many functions. 25
26. 26. Mind Bend • Write 4 different data types. • What is meant by a computer program? • Differentiate bit & byte? • What is a machine language? How it is different from High level language? • What are the advantages of high level language? Give some examples of high level language. 26
27. 27. Mind Bend • Differentiate Compiler and Interpreter. • What is source program? • What is object program? • Who develop the C language and where? • Can we use uppercase in C program? • Computer is an __________ device. • Binary code is the sequence of _ & _. 27
28. 28. To get complete benefit solve all the quiz on www.learnbywatch.com For any problem in this tutorial mail me at yogendra@learnbywatch.com with the subject “C” For Other information mail at info@learnbywatch.com Keep Watching Keep Learning NEXT IS C BASICS