NG BB 19 Document and Analyze the Process

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NG BB 19 Document and Analyze the Process

  1. 1. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Module 19 Document and Analyze the Process UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  2. 2. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOCPI Roadmap – Measure 8-STEP PROCESS 6. See 1.Validate 2. Identify 3. Set 4. Determine 5. Develop 7. Confirm 8. Standardize Counter- the Performance Improvement Root Counter- Results Successful Measures Problem Gaps Targets Cause Measures & Process Processes Through Define Measure Analyze Improve Control TOOLS •Process Mapping ACTIVITIES • Map Current Process / Go & See •Process Cycle Efficiency/TOC • Identify Key Input, Process, Output Metrics •Little’s Law • Develop Operational Definitions •Operational Definitions • Develop Data Collection Plan •Data Collection Plan • Validate Measurement System •Statistical Sampling • Collect Baseline Data •Measurement System Analysis • Identify Performance Gaps •TPM • Estimate Financial/Operational Benefits •Generic Pull • Determine Process Stability/Capability •Setup Reduction • Complete Measure Tollgate •Control Charts •Histograms •Constraint Identification •Process Capability Note: Activities and tools vary by project. Lists provided here are not necessarily all-inclusive. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  3. 3. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Learning Objectives  Develop skill with process maps to analyze the process in detail from the process participants‟ and the customers‟ viewpoints  Learn Process Mapping as a critical skill to eliminating waste in the existing process  Learn the features of different approaches to process mapping to enhance team learning  Learn how to develop a detailed, data rich Value- Stream Map from a Process Map UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 3
  4. 4. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Process Mapping UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  5. 5. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO What Is a Process Map? A graphical representation of a process flow identifying the steps of the process, displaying the X‟s (inputs) and Y‟s (outputs) of the process and of each individual step  Process maps need to be modified to fit the particular needs of any specific process Typical Order Fulfillment Process Sales Order Entry Warehousing Transportation Customer Places Is Yes Does No Is order Yes Send order to Pick product for Customer Customer Receives Product Ship Order Order warehouse for order Order correct? Available? have other picking shipments? No No Yes Call Customer and make corrections. No Will Customer allow consolidated shipments? Yes Consolidate Orders Manufacturing Operations Can Will product No Is production production No No Will Customer No Cancel Order be available scheduled to manufacture accept before order manufacture product in backorders? ships? product? time for Yes shipping? Yes Yes Yes Place order on hold Expedite until product manufacturing available schedule UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 5
  6. 6. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Why Process Mapping? Using symbols to depict the process Reasons for Process Mapping: Common Elements Depicted on Maps:  Analysis yields critical points in the  Suppliers/Inputs process to measure  Customers/Outputs  Identifies gaps between strategic focus and actual process  Process handoffs  Aids in Project charter  Decision points & branches development… a consensus view  Value Added/Non-Value Added analysis  Identifies projects – strategically assign BB/MBB  Where/when defects occur  Drill down to project/process focus  Lead times areas  WIP exists UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 6
  7. 7. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Typical Process Maps SIPOC Sets the scope of the Value-Steam map Process Map Outline Value Stream Map • Top-down • Swim-lane or cross functional • Detailed Specialized Maps • Input/Output Analysis • Time/Value Analysis • Defect Fall-Out Not all tools • Spaghetti Diagram are needed for every project! UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 7
  8. 8. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Problem Definition and Process Mapping How do I start mapping a process?  The first step is to have a well-defined problem statement (see the Project Charter module)  Process mapping will illustrate a process or business function with respect to the problem statement UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 8
  9. 9. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Mapping Hints Facilitate the team and  Do not try to map EVERY service/process – select a typical service to follow  Map with the team – real place, real people, real work  Identify VA and NVA Activities (more on this later!)  Add project critical metrics as applicable  Do not ask individual area managers to map “their” process and paste these together  Do not map your organization, but rather the flow of products through the organization (“be” the paper, product, etc.) UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 9
  10. 10. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Map Goals In capturing the process, the team must depict:  What the process looks like  Where key inputs occur  Depict the key outputs  Decision points  Delays  Hidden rework loops UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 10
  11. 11. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO High-Level Process View High-level view is characterized by  The major elements and their interactions  Showing the role of feedback and information flow  In 5 to 9 steps maximum UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 11
  12. 12. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Low-Level Process View Low-Level View is done when  Team reaches the level necessary to address the root cause of the problem and to assure ownership is clear Remember that  Each process has sub-processes, which have micro-processes, and so on (see the Top-Down model)  Do not try to describe or review the entire process (or system) at this level… too granular UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 12
  13. 13. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Current State Hints Get the current state depicted first, then team needs to validate it  Team should walk the process, gather data  Staple yourself to a request/order  Use paper to draw first drafts, not computer  Clarify process map and scope with the sponsor UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 13
  14. 14. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Top-Down Flow Chart / Process Map A High-Level Chart selectively expands (zooms in) from the highest level down to the level where the root cause is located To create:  Determine the Start and Finish Points of the broad Process  Define 5 to 9 high level activities between Start and Finish  Expand the high level activity(ies) most likely to contain the root cause into 5 to 9 medium level activities  Choose the medium level activity(ies) most likely to contain the root cause into 5 to 9 lower level activities  Expand again (and again!) until the level at which the cause(s) of the problem is reached  At this level complete detailed process map(s) Pitfalls…  Top Down Process Maps are tools to aid in focusing flow-charting effort  Do not flow chart a large process in too granular detail, FOCUS! UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 14
  15. 15. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Top Down Flowchart - DAC Hiring Process Internal Sourcing New DAC Request Unit Function Interview Offer Employee Prep Review Review Orientation External Sourcing Review Review Post Job Review Coordinate “Short” Search on CPO CPO site With List Data site Responses Current Sup. Choose Enter Submit Enter Enter Job Close to Descrip. Details Class Date publish UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 15
  16. 16. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO : Swim Lane” Cross Functional Map Use for large, complex processes when:  Multiple departments/functions are involved, including outside the firm  Sequence and time of processes is important (as in lead time reduction)  You need to shows handoffs in the process By convention, the top lane is typically reserved for the customer UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 16
  17. 17. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Swim Lane Example Council Advanced Quality Healthcare CAQH Application Process Request Paper MCS Credential Files Roster: Create Fax Docs CAQH a Start Request List PCFs Acct Y NGB Supply List State Surgeon List OK? Supply PCFs Revise List Providers CAQH b Notify CAQH Notify Provider UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 17
  18. 18. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Example-NCOES Scheduling Admin Unit REDUCTION RLAS UpdateSoldier School NCOIC Fail ATRRS Update X3 SGT Notified SGT SGT annotated as TASS (Certified Mail or Pass Attends Pass SGT Graduates NCOES trained in Ck List Document Reciept) School ITRS, RLAS, 2-1 Amend Request X2ATTRS Op/ Approval Quota Order Cut OriginalTrng NCO Hierarchy Mgr School Request Amend Approval Order Cut Wait Original Approval Hierarchy Approve (May be multiple levels) Deny Fail Reschedule X1 SGT Scheduled in First Available Course Deny (ATRRS Op/Trng NCO) Secondary Counseling: Addresses: SGT Counseled -Reduction FLL -Rescheduling -Evaluation Comment Initial: (NCOER) -DA 2166-8-1 Addresses: -Attendance -Completion -Timeframe (AR 350-1) -Total AT time available for that TY UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 18
  19. 19. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO More Helpful Hints Now that you have seen some examples, here are some more hints:  Interrogate the process by watching in many different conditions. You must watch the process as it happens to see the detail you need.  Do not let space be an issue. Consider using sticky notes as the process steps and post on a wall to get your initial ideas across.  If your map does not have enough space to list all the information, use numbered reference sheets as attachments.  Maintain your Process and Value-Stream Maps with dates and update them maintaining version control. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 19
  20. 20. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process Mapping Tips  It should illustrate both the work flow and the Connector organizational interaction  It should use a common Process Step or Operation language (symbology) which is understood by everyone Decision  It should capture all multiple paths, decisions, and rework Directional Flow loops  It should contain adequate Storage, Waiting Time detail  Too much detail is incomprehensible Delay  Too little detail has no analytical value UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 20
  21. 21. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Value Stream Mapping For Deeper Analysis UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  22. 22. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO A Value Stream – A Definition “All actions, both value-creating and non value- creating, required to bring a product or service from concept to launch and from order to delivery. These include actions to process information from the customer and actions to transform the product on its way to the customer” Lean Enterprise Institute – Prof. Dan Jones UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  23. 23. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Value Stream Mapping Benefits  Methodology for documenting process flow  Details / defines activities through the business processes  Helps to identify waste & value  Assists with identifying and communicating activities from current state (As-Is) to the future state (To-Be)  Value stream mapping is the start to any Lean transformation UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  24. 24. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Value Stream Mapping What VSM can show  Value added times versus lead time  Material flow / movement  Level of rework at each step  Information flow  All wastes including  People movement  Storage  Tools and equipment movement  Waiting time  Scrap Levels  Inventory levels  Overproduction  Machine utilization UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  25. 25. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Key Advantages of Value Stream Mapping VSM is effective because it  Provides overview of the whole Value Stream  Links information and material flows  Depicts waste within the system with visual symbols  Allows clear targeting of waste elimination  Is an excellent communication technique for any operation  Provides framework for conversations  Shows in a concise way how operation functions  Prevents focusing on large improvement opportunities with little impact Transformation Suppliers Customer Processes Value Stream UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  26. 26. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Value Stream Mapping Steps Step 1: Create a SIPOC Chart Step 2: Map the Current State with a “Top Down” or “Swim Lane” Flow Chart Step 3: Determine Service/Product Family to Value Stream Map (Scoping!) Step 4: Draw the Process Flow Step 5: Add the Material Flow Step 6: Add the Information Flow Step 7: Add Process Data Collection boxes Step 8: Add Lead Time data Step 9: Verify Current State Map Step 10: Create Future State Map UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 26
  27. 27. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Value Stream Mapping – Useful Tips  Agree on standard measurements before you start.  Walk the actual process, don‟t rely on what people think.  The whole process should be mapped by the same persons.  Level of detail should be appropriate for activities captured.  Establish the best direction for mapping - sometimes from the customer and working backwards.  Observe the actual times, distances and inventory levels.  Capture the movement of information as well as materials.  A pencil and paper can be used to illustrate the process quickly and effectively. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  28. 28. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Principles for Creating a Value Stream Map • Diagram needs to be on one sheet of paper • Use the standard format for the diagram • Use the standard symbols for the diagram • Capture all of the data yourself • Walk, Understand and Validate the process • Involve as many people as practical • Use paper and pencil UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  29. 29. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Value Stream Mapping – The Symbols Factory Electronic Information Flow DATA BOX Process Information Push Movement I Inventory Withdrawal Delivery Times Shipping Production Kanban Movement of Finished Goods Withdrawal Kanban Information Flow UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  30. 30. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Sample Value Stream Mapping Symbols Machining Quotes C/T = 36 Sec Flow Set Up Time 7 Min I (Physical) Uptime 86% Queue/ Electronic Inventory Information Data Box Flow 1 (Information) Process Box Electronic Physical Pull Personnel Data “Go See” System Monitoring FIFO Truck Shipment FIFO Lane Sign Off Point Physical Transport Kanban Paper Supplier/ Push Systems Project Supermarket Station Kanban Customer Burst Replenishment UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 30
  31. 31. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Start with the customer requirements to Identify the Customer Customers ensure the VSM reflects the customers needs. Identify the major suppliers, their Identify the Suppliers Suppliers locations and their products. Process 1 Identify the major Keep the processes top level to keep processes the VSM simple. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  32. 32. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Supplier Example: Refueling Wing Widgets Customer Metal ANG Components Refueling Ltd Wing Production Control Salesg Goods Inwards Process A Assembly Process B Treatments Dispatch UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  33. 33. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Production Control Sales Supplier Customer Order Order Metal Prod 8 per ANG month Components Schedule Refueling Ltd Wing 2 Deliveries 60 miles 90 miles per week. 1 Delivery 5 items each per week of 2 items Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch 1 9 4 3 5 Items 6 Items 2 Items 2 Items 4 Items 4 Items Items Items Items Items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  34. 34. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map The information box can contain any • Complete process Process 1 relevant details such as: type of operation, cycle times (c/t), batch sizes (b/s), number details of operators, number of shifts, available working time, scrap rates, set-up times. Push systems tend to occur where • Capture push material moves in accordance with systems schedules / MRP. Pull systems and true kanbans only occur where movement of material is directly • Capture pull / Kanban related to customer orders. Production systems should stop unless there is a Kanban signal. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  35. 35. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 3. Process/Service Matrix  We need to first determine what process or service offering we want to map  Sometimes this is obvious  Hiring employees and paying invoices are clearly different processes which would require separate process maps  Sometimes it is unclear - and a Process/Service Matrix will help us clarify  Do new home applications, student loans, refinancing loans, car loans, and home equity loans use similar processes? We need to investigate. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 35
  36. 36. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Movement of Goods Capture the direction and flow of goods internal and external. Delivery Note the frequency and quantities of Capture transportation Times events deliveries shipped in and out of the company. Capture the transfer of information as Document Information well as materials. Distinguish between Flow electronic and paper-based systems. Observe Inventory Note the amount of inventory in terms Levels of the number of pieces and/or the I number of days of inventory represented. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  37. 37. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 3. Process/Service Matrix  Service and Process Matrix  Determine a process or service to map  Create a matrix of services and processes through which they pass  Group similar services together Refueling Wing Widgets Product Process Matrix Process Steps Goods Inwards Process A Assembly Process B Treatments Dispatch Boom fastener 4567 X X X Boom gasket kit 5668 X X X X Boom potentiometer bracket 8907 X X X X X Boom PCB environmental enclosure 7800 X X X X X Boom frame positioner 67-8989 X X UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 37
  38. 38. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 4. Draw the Process Flow Begin with the Customer ANG Refueling Wing 90 miles 1 Delivery per week of 2 items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 38
  39. 39. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 4. Draw the Process Flow Add the Process Boxes ANG Refueling Wing 90 miles 1 Delivery per week of 2 items Goods Inwards Machine A Assembly Machine B Treatments Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 39
  40. 40. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 5. Add the Material Flow Add Inventory, Approvals, and Flow ANG Refueling Wing 90 miles 1 Delivery per week of 2 items Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 1 9 4 3 5 Items 6 Items 2 Items 2 Items 4 Items 4 Items Items Items Items Items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 40
  41. 41. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 5. Add the Material Flow Add Major Supplier Supplier ANG Refueling Wing Metal Components Ltd 90 miles 1 Delivery per week 2 Deliveries of 2 items per week. 5 items each Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 1 9 4 3 5 Items 6 Items 2 Items 2 Items 4 Items 4 Items Items Items Items Items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 41
  42. 42. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 6. Add Information/Monitoring Flow Production Control Sales Supplier Customer Order Order Metal Prod 8 per month ANG Components Schedule Refueling Ltd Wing 2 Deliveries 60 miles 90 miles per week. 1 Delivery 5 items each per week of 2 items Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 1 9 4 3 5 Items 6 Items 2 Items 2 Items 4 Items 4 Items Items Items Items Items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 42
  43. 43. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Production Control Sales Supplier Customer Order Order Metal Prod 8 per month ANG Components Schedule Refueling Ltd Wing 2 Deliveries 60 miles 90 miles per week. 1 Delivery 5 items each per week of 2 items Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 1 9 4 3 5 Items 6 Items 2 Items 2 Items 4 Items 4 Items Items Items Items Items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  44. 44. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map • Withdrawal Pull of material, usually from a supermarket The “one-per-container” kanban, card or device that tells a process how many of • Production Kanban what can be produced and gives permission to do so. Card or device that instructs the material • Withdrawal Kanban handler to get and transfer parts i.e. from a foot print to the consuming process. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  45. 45. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Measurement To support any improvement we have to understand the current “as-is” process with the key measures. Value Added Time What to measure?  Should support a company‟s Non-value objectives for cost, service, added time Distance and quality  Should highlight waste Inspection Rework Be flexible Set-Up  Revise as necessary as the process tasks are defined Inventory  Select ones you may already be using Waiting  If there is time, seek out some baseline measures UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  46. 46. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Production Control Sales Supplier Order Customer Order Prod 8 per Metal ANG Components Schedule month Refueling Ltd Wing 2 Deliveries per week. 60 90 1 Delivery 5 items each miles miles per week of 2 items Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 9 4 3 5 1 6 Items 2 Items 2 Items 4 Items 4 Items Items Items Items Items Items UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  47. 47. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 7. Add Process Data Collection Boxes  Walk the Value Stream and see the flow  Gather significant data for each step in the flow Manufacturing Transactional / Office Trigger: Trigger: Completion Criteria: Completion Criteria: Lead Time: Cycle Time: Cycle Time: Takt Time: Takt Time: Number of People: Number of People: Number of Approvals: WIP Pieces: Items in Inbox: C/O Time: % Rework: Distance Item Travels: # of Iterations (cycles): % Rework: # of Databases: Top 3 Defects: Top 3 Rework Issues: 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 47
  48. 48. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 7. Add Process Data Collection Boxes Production Control Sales Supplier Order Customer Trigger: Order Prod 8 per Completion Criteria: Metal ANG Components Schedule Lead Time: month Refueling Ltd Wing Cycle Time: Takt Time: 2 Deliveries per week. 60 Number of People: 90 1 Delivery 5 items each miles miles per week WIP Pieces: of 2 items C/O Time: Distance Item Travels: % Rework: Top 3 Defects: Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 1. 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 2. mins 120 SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 3. 1 Trigger: Trigger: Completion Criteria: 9 4 3 5 Completion Criteria: Lead Time: Lead Time: Cycle Time: Takt Time: 6 Items Trigger: 2 Items Trigger: Completion Criteria: 2 Items Trigger: 4 Items Trigger: 4 Items Cycle Time: Takt Time: Completion Criteria: Completion Criteria: Number of People: Number of People: Lead Time: Completion Criteria: Lead Time: Lead Time: Items Items Items Items Items WIP Pieces: WIP Pieces: Cycle Time: Lead Time: Cycle Time: Cycle Time: C/O Time: C/O Time: Takt Time: Cycle Time: Takt Time: Takt Time: Distance Item Travels: Distance Item Travels: Number of People: Takt Time: Number of People: Number of People: % Rework: % Rework: WIP Pieces: Number of People: WIP Pieces: WIP Pieces: Top 3 Defects: Top 3 Defects: C/O Time: WIP Pieces: C/O Time: C/O Time: 1. 1. Distance Item Travels: C/O Time: Distance Item Travels: Distance Item Travels: 2. 2. % Rework: Distance Item Travels: % Rework: % Rework: 3. 3. Top 3 Defects: % Rework: Top 3 Defects: Top 3 Defects: 1. Top 3 Defects: 1. 1. 2. 1. 2. 2. 3. 2. 3. 3. 3. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  49. 49. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creating the Value Stream Map Timeline  A timeline shown below the process map helps us to illustrate  Value added versus non value added time. Value Added Total Value Added Time = Total Elapsed Time = Elapsed Time  Dividing the value added time by the total elapsed time gives an indication of waste levels (Efficiency of Process / Value Added Ratio)  A similar process can be used to capture other information e.g. inventory levels and distance travelled. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  50. 50. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOStep 8. Add Lead Time Data  Graphical display of time factor of value stream  Times on top = Queue time  Base on historical data if possible, observation otherwise  May be calculated from inventory amounts (Inventory/takt time)  Times on bottom = Processing time  May include wait times within process step  Base on historical data if possible, observation otherwise  Summary box on right  Total queue time in top  Total processing time in bottom UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 50
  51. 51. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 8. Add Lead Time Data Production Control Sales Supplier Order Customer Order Prod 8 per Metal ANG Components Schedule month Refueling Ltd Wing 2 Deliveries per week. 60 90 1 Delivery 5 items each miles miles per week of 2 items Goods Inwards 200m Machine A 400m Assembly 400m Machine B 300m Treatments 200m Dispatch C/T 40 mins C/T 245 mins C/T 150 mins C/T 65 mins C/T 140 mins C/T 15 mins SUT 5 mins SUT 35 mins SUT 0 mins SUT 120 mins SUT 2 mins SUT 0 mins B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 1 B/S 2 B/S 2 B/S 2 4 3 5 Trigger: 1 Trigger: Trigger: 9 Trigger: Trigger: Trigger: Completion Criteria: Completion Criteria: Completion Criteria: Lead Time: 4 Completion Criteria: Cycle Time: Lead Time: 4 Items Takt Time: Completion Criteria: 2 2 Completion Criteria: Lead Time: Lead Time: 6 Number of People: Lead Time: Cycle Time: WIP Pieces: Items Items Items Cycle Time: Cycle Time: Lead Time: Items C/O Time: Cycle Time: Takt Time: Takt Time: Takt Time: Distance Item Travels: Takt Time: % Rework: Cycle Time: Number of People: Items Number of People: Number of People: Number of People: Top 3 Defects: Items Items Items 1. Takt Time: WIP Pieces: Items WIP Pieces: WIP Pieces: 2. WIP Pieces: 3. Number of People: C/O Time: C/O Time: Distance Item Travels: C/O Time: C/O Time: Distance Item Travels: WIP Pieces: Distance Item Travels: % Rework: % Rework: Distance Item Travels: C/O Time: Top 3 Defects: % Rework: Top 3 Defects: % Rework: Distance Item Travels: 1. 1. Top 3 Defects: Top 3 Defects: 2. % Rework: 2. 1. 3. 1. Top 3 Defects: 3. 2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. Value Added 3. 40 + 40 245 + 245 150 + 150 130 140 15 Time = 1155 Elapsed Time 975 5+5 3360 35 + 35 1900 0 2300 120 1775 2 1140 0 = 12807 (6 wks) VAR = 9% Total Distance 200m 400m 300m 300m 200m = 1500m Total Inventory 6 9 2 4 2 3 4 5 4 1 = 40 UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  52. 52. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Step 9. Verify the Current State VSM  Peer Review  Use non-team members who know the process  Review process both internally and “at its edges” (the interfaces)  Simulation  Use Excel and a static format  Use simulation software (i.e., ProModel) and a dynamic approach  Piloting  Pick a part of the organization that is a good representation of the rest  Committed upper management, enthusiastic operations personnel  Implement and observe the improvement. Be prepared to evaluate. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 52
  53. 53. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO The Future State  When to complete the „Future State‟ map?  Often done in Improve Phase for 3 to 5 month long DMAIC projects  Done much sooner in an RIE (more on this later)  Map the Future State to Prioritize Improvement Opportunities:  Utilize Takt calculations  Have a goal of continuous flow  Establish queue programs (utilizing Kanbans) where continuous flow is not possible  Find opportunities to shorten/reduce defects, downtime, setup time, value- add time  Do not try to change service designs, technology, or facility locations on first iterations of your future state design UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 53
  54. 54. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Questions About Future State  What is the Takt Rate?  Will I have a queue system or ship direct?  Where can I utilize continuous flow?  Where will I need replenishment pull systems?  At what single point will I schedule services?  How will I level the service mix at the Bottleneck (also referred to as a Time Trap) or Constraint?  What will be my project priority? NOTE: Definitions for unfamiliar terms will be covered later in the course. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 54
  55. 55. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Use of Future State Map  Prioritize Opportunities  “See” and Manage the Overall Material Flow  Communication of “the Future”  Create a Plan with Timeframes UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 55

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