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LKIN18 : Leveraging Lean and Kanban to implement Continuous Improvement - Ravi Tadwalkar


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Session Overview :

How can continuous improvement culture and mindset be "transformed" with Lean and Kanban? What can corporate culture derive from and expand on cultures that still exist in Lean Manufacturing movement that began with TPS (Toyota Product System)? How can we leverage our knowledge of Lean and Kanban to transform organization's fitness for purpose? This is a workshop about a pictorial case study that shows how to apply Lean Manufacturing values, principles & best practices for continuous improvement in today's fast-paced IT landscape.

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LKIN18 : Leveraging Lean and Kanban to implement Continuous Improvement - Ravi Tadwalkar

  1. 1. Case Study: Lean Manufacturing plant level continuous improvement Leveraging Lean and Kanban to implement Continuous Improvement LKNA2018 (Lean Kanban India 2018), September 21, 2018 LKNA2017 (Lean Kanban India 2017), September 16, 2017 Agile2016, Pecha Kucha Lightening Talk on July 27, 2016 by Ravi Tadwalkar in/rtadwalkar @tadwalkar
  2. 2. This is a story of Lean Manufacturing Plant Manager Shari, seeking plant value stream level continuous improvement. Shari intends to improve plant level visibility on SLAs, batch sizes (volumes) and WIP. Here are some pictures from this Lean Manufacturing plant.
  3. 3. 3 Plant Manager Shari is trained by Lean Enterprise Institute. She has read Taiichi Ohno’s “TPS”, Eli Goldratt’s “Goal”, Gene Kim’s “Phoenix Project”! You can say that Shari is big on Lean, in just 10 pictures!
  4. 4. 4 Shari implemented Lean manufacturing at this Plant she manages, influencing other 5 plants. She implemented Lean, starting with Lean House for tracking continuous improvement!
  5. 5. 5 Shari implemented accountability board to drive continuous improvement at her plant.
  6. 6. 6 Shari implemented manufacturing kanban in all “cells” to visualize work related to continuous improvement.
  7. 7. 7 Here Shari shows an example of kanban card that is attached to a product across workstations in a cell. She says plant has JIT (Just-In-Time) inventory almost, with at most 2 days of raw materials!
  8. 8. 8 Shari implemented visual controls to visualize front-end work for products.
  9. 9. 9 Shari implemented Lean tool 5S to complement other Lean tools used in all plant cells.
  10. 10. 10 Shari implemented “Wall of Appreciation” in cells. Jurgen Apello talks about it in Management 3.0!
  11. 11. 11 This is the latest cell Shari proudly shows during a plant tour. She intends to improve visibility of plant level value stream specific to monitoring SLAs, batch sizes and WIP.
  12. 12. We saw some pictures from this Lean Manufacturing plant. We will see how DevOps can be implemented to seek plant level continuous improvements with Lean and Agile.
  13. 13. Upstream Kanban: Downstream Kanban: 13 • Begin with the end in mind: create “Stop Starting, Start Finishing“ Kanban mindset • Visualize flow between Portfolio (“Upstream”) with Release Engineering (“Downstream”) • Visualize bottlenecks to flow at both upstream and downstream levels! • Use Portfolio Kanban board across Org Design (Team of Teams) • Use a simple Kanban board with a “Plan->Build->Run” or similar workflow Run F E I Idea Deploy to Prod G D GY PB MN 2 ∞ AB Biz Design Plan Build (Dev & QA) Architecture, resource plan Core team OMS … 3 3 DE Explicit policy: Feature is “done” only when last team working on it has completed “Deploy to Prod” Lead time ends at 1st infinite queue! There could be additional queues with no WIP limit. Lead time “clock” starts at 1st queue i.e. WIP limited input queue! 3 3 Deployed (Note touch time) NPD (New Prod Dev) (60%) Defect& Tech Debt (30%) Innovation (10%) 5 2 1 Expedite 1 3 Fixed Date Standard Intangible 2 2 3 WIP Limits based on classes of service (Release Engineering) WIP Limits based on work types (feature teams) Upstream (Portfolio) and Downstream (Release Engineering) Kanban Systems
  14. 14. “As-Is” Value Stream Map – Illustrating Kaizen Lightening Bursts Customer Plan (Idea / Discovery) Build (Delivery) Run (Operations) Business Case PlanningPrioritization - Ideation - Biz & Tech Assessment - Go/No-go/Defer - Capacity Planning - Project Planning - Prioritization - Project Selection - RFE Approval Design (Arch) Build (Dev) Test (QA) - Technical Design - WBS - Integrate - Test Planning - Ops Planning - Get Approval - Deploy to QA - Configure Tests - Manual Testing - User Acceptance Production Go-Live Business-As-Usual Change Mgmt (ITIL) Environment Provisioning- Ops Planning - Config&Deploy - Wait for DBA - Get Approval Prod Support & Monitoring Ops Mgmt (DB, Network) 3 to 5 m 4 to 6 m 2 to 3 m Sustenance mode Business Portfolio: Governance & Oversight Environments & Tools Time Ladder (approx.) Lead Time ? Value Add Time ? Non-VA Time ? Electronic Information Flow Offshoring Teams 0.5 m 1 m 1 m 1 m 1-3 m 0.5 m 2 m 0.5 m 0.5 m 0.5 m 1-2 m 1-2 m 1-2 m 1 m WIP (Inventory)PUSH- scheduled before neededExternal source LEGEND Eliminate Waste Time Analysis Non-Value Add vs. Total 45% Value Add vs. Total 55% Value Add vs. Non-VA ? Sustenance 14
  15. 15. “To-Be” Value Stream Map – Seek “Build” Process Improvements Customer Plan(A “Release”) Build(Deployables) Run (Operations) TDAD Multi- Sprint Plan Backlog Prep <Story Map> - Technical Design - Multi-team - At cadence - Ops work - 1 story map - per team - per epic Design (Artifacts) Sprint Plan + Sprint Retro Iterate (Dev & QA) - MVD (wiki) - Test Plans - UX artifact - 2 mtgs, 4hr each - Ops work included - Build w/ Unit Tests - Execute test cases - Expedite bug-fixes - Dev & Test NFRs Demo Business-As-Usual Change Mgmt (ITIL) Environment Provisioning- Env on demand - PO Acceptance - Production bugs - Proactive DBAs Prod Support & Monitoring Ops Mgmt (DB, Network) 3m 3m (4 sprints) 1m Sustenance mode Business Portfolio: Governance & Oversight Environments & Tools Time Ladder (approx.) Lead Time ~4m Value Add Time ~2m Non-VA Time ~2m Time Analysis Non-Value Add vs. Total 50% Value Add vs. Total 50% Value Add vs. Non-VA 1 Electronic Information Flow Offshoring Teams 2m 1w 1w .5 w NVA:1d 1m 0.5 w 1w.5 w 2w NVA:1d 1w WIP (Inventory)PUSH- scheduled before neededExternal source LEGEND Eliminate Waste 1w 3m (4 sprints) Sustenance 15
  16. 16. 16 Begin with end in mind: visualize work on a “Plan->Build->Run” value stream of Enterprise Kanban Enterprise Kanban System with "Plan->Build->Run" value stream
  17. 17. 17 In the beginning: A workflow automation solution requires starting with an end-to-end process simulation. Shari started solutioning by organizing use-case scenarios for process simulation of plant level process improvements. Process Simulation for Planning a workflow automation initiative round1: Discussion about sharing your experiences on implementing Process Simulation
  18. 18. 18 Shari participated in solutioning by role playing as Plant Manager during User Story Mapping for plant simulations about improving Lean Manufacturing value stream with visibility on SLAs, batch sizes and WIP. Note how her persona shows up on a slide in this picture showing this user story map as well Story Map: Driver for Lean Portfolio Management round2: Discussion about sharing your experiences on implementing Story Mapping
  19. 19. 19 Like Lean manufacturing plant, for continuous improvements, IT uses Kaizen events e.g. open spaces in corporate setting: Using Open Spaces to build communities of practice for “Kaizen”
  20. 20. 20 Like Lean manufacturing plant, for continuous improvements, IT uses TQM’s PDCA loop on a Kanban board like this: Example of continuous improvement about introducing DevOps via feature toggle Example of Continuous Improvement Kanban Board with PDCA-loop round3: Discussion about sharing your experiences on implementing Kaizen for continuous
  21. 21. 21 In summary: Workflow Automation Solutioning is an end-to-end process, starting with process simulation, to visualize epics on Enterprise Kanban, to big room planning, to implementing user stories based on DoD, to visualizing deployable artifacts on DevOps Kanban! Summary of visualizations used in Plan-Build-Run Value Stream
  22. 22. During planning, create org alignment to improve flow (1st way of DevOps), using Portfolio Kanban system. 22 Role of Manager: Leading from the front, Applying 3 ways of DevOps Enable managers in shaping various communities of practice: create culture of continual experimentation & learning (3rd way of DevOps). • Begin with succinctly defined portfolio hierarchy or swim lanes that consist of strategic (CAPEX) and tactical (OPEX) investments: • Themes • Initiatives • Features • Create single-piece flow of portfolio items with Portfolio Kanban board. Apply lean metrics for continuous improvement. • Apply first way of DevOps: emphasize on performance of entire system by analyzing value streams, WIP, lead times & due date performance. During execution, enable continuous feedback loops (2nd way of DevOps) with obstacle boards to act on impediments & dysfunctions. • This requires low-fidelity obstacle escalation process. This can be a 2-level (team->management) process, or a 3-level (team->program>portfolio) process. • Example of obstacle board and related workflow:
  23. 23. FYI: Swift-Kanban & Atlassian Tool Chains Integrated for DevOps with SAFe Development Tools Atlassian BitBucket (GIT) Developer writes code and check-in Associate JIRA Issue Types (Tasks / Bugs) Build gets triggered  Microsoft Visual Studio (For .NET)  Eclipse (For JAVA) Atlassian BAMBOO for CI Build Definitions for:  Database  .NET  Java Atlassian BAMBOO for Continuous Deployment (CD) Approve / Reject Build DIT1 Functional Testing • Continuous Integration • Scheduled Build Approve / Reject Build DIT2 Approve / Reject Build SIT Regression Testing Selenium Approve / Reject Build UAT UAT Testing Approve / Reject Build PROD Functional Testing DEVELOPMENT Branch QA Branch MASTER Branch FEATURE Branch Service & Data Mock Epics e.g. Ship to Home Pre-pay (JIRA Issue Type) User Stories (JIRA Issue Type) Monitoring Ngaios Initiatives e.g. Sports on Spectrum (JIRA Issue Type) Release Stream aka Agile Release Train (ART) Themes (Strategic Goals)  prevent defects related to Requirements problems  Test Planning  Test Execution  Traceability & Reporting  Defect Creation in JIRA  Track Coverage & Quality Metrics UX Team DB Team ART Engineer Product Managers Note: Integrate Atlassian Bamboo with “Chef” for non-windows deployments DevelopmentTasks Visualize Portfolio Timeline by Releases Swift-Kanban Metrics and/or EasyBI plugin (Reporting & Charting) On top of existing JQL queries Visualize Investment by Themes PMO-level Status Reporting Testing Tasks 23 Kanplan: backlog for Kanban and Scrumban teams 23
  24. 24. In Summary: 24 That’s Lean Manufacturing workflow automation related continuous improvement case study. Implementing DevOps means creating DevOps mindset & culture. That requires lots of Lean, Six Sigma, TQM, Lean Startup, and yes, Bit of Agile with Lots of “Respect for People”: Top down approach: 30-60-90 strategic plan for continuous improvement with baseline assessment of DevOps capability maturity Bottom up approach: Crowd sourcing tactical plan for continuous improvement with assessment based open space events Inside out approach: PDCA Kanban board for feedback driven visibility with Lean Startup method (build-measure-learn loop) and TQM (PDCA loop) Implementing DevOps requires mindset & culture open to all approaches
  25. 25. Appendix Approach, Details and Samples of various process artifacts
  26. 26. Operations wide Proposal for Management Review
  27. 27. How can Modern Agile & ESP work in Operations? • Operations currently has a plan driven management approach to align an ecosystem of interconnected and interdependent services. • For Operations , Modern Agile based transformation will enrich the management approach to be more value-driven, for faster “flow” of work. • Model Agile approach supports ESP (Enterprise Services Planning). • ESP is a Kanban based management system of cadences to coordinate and align across multiple interconnected services or domains, to create customer value • ESP enables business agility without loss of management control. • EPS enables speedier value delivery, improved optionality and business agility. • ESP will also make Operations leadership focus on flow efficiencies in addition to resource efficiencies, to achieve V2MOM level goals.
  28. 28. Step 1: Intake & Planning (1- 2 weeks) •Define V2MOM level Goal(s) - e.g. Tech Refresh initiative for 1. on-time engineering wide provisioning (rack & loose gear on/off boarding) 2. Planning new compute capacity •Reduce Scope for incremental value (~1 quarter to 6 months)- leveled by capacity to do work- early adopter programs/products - e.g. rack onboarding process workflow •Identify key stakeholders: from Business, Dev/Engg, SQA/Test, Release Engg and/or Operations • Identify landscape: Value chain, initiatives, priorities, expectations, impediments, and known constraints •Create initial Lean change plan using canvasses such as: “Lean change canvases” for both initiatives, and “Strategy canvas” for tracking strategy through execution Step 2: Discovery phase (2-3 weeks) •Apply "learning to see” approach to Create value by finding sources of non- value-adding wastes, whether necessary or unnecessary; and to reduce or eliminate those. •Narrow down and validate current state value stream map (VSM)– identify current process workflows, analyze timings and identify NVA wastes (impediments) causing delays in flow. •Visualize future state VSM- “single piece flow” in ideal world. •Gap Analysis Workshops- to identify gaps between “as is” and “to be” VSMs in terms of key tenets related to people, process, tools, governance & metrics •Assessment of process maturity •Formal Report- Submit assessment worksheet highlighting gaps Step 3: Roadmap phase (4-6 weeks) • Recommendations- •People- new roles as needed •Process – ESP Cadences •Tools for road mapping •Governance & Metrics • 30-60-90 plan specific to identified gaps in order to improve process maturity • recommend “Strategy canvas” based Kanban system for tracking strategy through execution #Step 4: Pilot Phase • Identify people for new Roles from selected teams, if needed • Training & Coaching - Process - ESP cadences, agendas, meetings and - People - Changing roles & responsibilities - Tools - Roadmap sync with cadences • Build-measure-learn -learn to either pivot or persevere • Validated learning -socialize outcomes & communicate plan of continuous improvement #Step 5: Wider Rollout •Move the needle • Build Community • Transformation team & charter • Add champions, evangelists • Cadence of events • Execute Lean change plan for scaling, apply process evaluator tool with a centralized or autonomous governance model with Modern Agile values and ESP cadences based on an evolutionary (phased) framework like Kanban and/or Scrumban #Time line is context dependent after step 3 28 Approach (Modern Agile with ESP Cadences)
  29. 29. Improvement Plan for Operations 1. Understand Direction / Challenge(s) • We need to work out challenges with hardware on-boarding and off-boarding • a major bottleneck for Operations wide Tech Refresh initiative 2. Assess Current Condition • Value stream mapping (VSM) • Find operational inefficiencies • Document “as is” state VSM 3. Achieve next feasible target condition • Document “to-be” state VSM • Design Kanban Boards for “to-be” workflows • Visualize & limit work-in-progress • Show improvements in cycle/lead times • Further tuning…with controlled experiments 4. Iterate steps 1 to 3, to achieve more feasible targets with more experiments • e.g. “dock to bootstrap” in 1-2 days with 1 empowered team
  30. 30. Goals of VSM (value stream mapping) • Main goal of VSM is to create value by finding sources of muda (non-value-adding wastes), whether necessary or unnecessary: • Other goals of VSM are to eliminate mura (unevenness) and muri (overburdoning) See also:
  31. 31. “As-Is” Value Stream Map – “Rack On-boarding” Workflow Customer Request to Dock (160+ d) Prepare (13-15d) Bootstrap (3d) PO Creation ReceivedPO Processing Pre-Config Land @DC Configuration 160+ days 13 to 15 days 3 days Pre-planning for Approved Demand Time Ladder (approx.) Lead Time. 176+ d Value Add Time 42- 44 d Non-VA Time 80-165 d Electronic Information Flow Operations 3 days 7 days 7 days 13-18 days 3 days 60-140 days WIP (Inventory)PUSH- scheduled before neededExternal source LEGEND Eliminate Waste Time Analysis Non-Value Add vs. Total 50-75% or more Value Add vs. Total 25-50% or less Value Add vs. Non-VA ½ to 1/3 or less Work In Progress - Create RQSVR - Approve RQSVR - Shopping Cart - Create PO - Approve PO - Create Asset via ASN - Create PROCR - Create LGSRV - Approve LGSRV - Execution smartsheet - Asset arrival - Scan asset - Update TMA - Close PROCR - Close RQSVR - CIE prep work Post-Config - SWFPA: rack profile - Electrical/power WO - Network Pre-Config - Pre-cable network - Move - Scan - Install - Auto Verify - Configure switch - Check ILOM & Racks - TMA status=in-Service - Rack profile scripts - SASRV: begin bootstrap - Auto bootstrap (via API) - Close SWFPA - Resolve LGSRV - Bootstrap completed 9 days 0 days 4-6 days 0 days 11 days 0 days 5 days 0 days Asset Mgmt (8-10) Site Services (~40) Data Center TS (13) Network (8-10) Vendor (25-30) Lack of standardized work, e.g. Rack life expectancy, depreciation decisions Network Bubble decisions Ports availability
  32. 32. “To-Be” Value Stream Map – “Rack On-boarding” Workflow Customer Pre-Config Land (on dock) Post-Config Order Request Purchase Order Purchase Order Dock ? days ? days ? days Pre-planning for Approved Demand Time Ladder (approx.) Lead Time. ? d Value Add Time ? d Non-VA Time ? d Electronic Information Flow Operations ?day s ?days ?days ?days ?days ?days WIP (Inventory)PUSH- scheduled before neededExternal source LEGEND Eliminate Waste Time Analysis Non-Value Add vs. Total ? % or more Value Add vs. Total ? % or less Value Add vs. Non-VA ? Not Started Dock ?days ?days ?days ?days ?days ?days ?days ?days Deploy Standardized Work One empowered team(80-100)?
  33. 33. Modern Agile ESP- PE-wide Proposal for Management Review 4 Pillars of Modern Agile 33 Make Safety a Prerequisite Make People Awesome How do we make people awesome through our product and how do we make our teams awesome? How do we promote safety around interactions with one another as well as make our products safe to use for our users? Experiment & Learn Rapidly How do we increase the feedback loop? When we get stuck or aren’t learning enough, we take it as a sign that we need to learn more by running more experiments. Deliver Value Continuously How do we get value into our customer’s hands as frequently as possible? 01 02 03 04
  34. 34. Lean Change Canvas- format for Initiatives
  35. 35. Source:
  36. 36. Lean Canvas (Ebay example)
  37. 37. Strategy Canvas (Transformation example)