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WHY AGILE IS FAILING
IN LARGE ENTERPRISES
WHY AGILE IS FAILING
IN LARGE ENTERPRISES
…and what you can do about it
mike@leadingagile.com
404-312-1471
www.leadingagile.com
twitter.com/mcottmeyer
facebook.com/leadingagile
linkedin.com/in/c...
A BRIEF HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE
1943
1950-
1960s
1985
1990
1995
1996
1997
1998
2000
2001
USAF	&	NASA
X-15	hypersonic	jet
Iterative	
Incremental	Delivery
H...
Individuals &
interactions
Processes & toolsover
Working software
Comprehensive
documentation
over
Customer collaboration ...
Satisfy the
Customer
Welcome
Change
Deliver
Frequently
Collaborate
Daily
Support & Trust
Motivated
Teams
Promote
Face-to-F...
BELIEFS ABOUT AGILE &
TRANSFORMATION
Culture
PracticesStructure
BELIEFS…
Culture
PracticesStructure
• Focused on changing
hearts and minds
• Focused on being agile
rather than doing agile
• Focus...
Culture
PracticesStructure
• Focused on changing
hearts and minds
• Focused on being agile
rather than doing agile
• Focus...
Practices
StructureCulture
• Focused on the things
that you do
• Focused on roles,
ceremonies, and artifacts
• Can be mana...
Practices
StructureCulture
• Focused on the things
that you do
• Focused on roles,
ceremonies, and artifacts
• Can be mana...
Structure
CulturePractices
• Focused on forming
teams and governing the
flow of value
• Focused on aligning the
organizati...
Structure
CulturePractices
• Focused on forming
teams and governing the
flow of value
• Focused on aligning the
organizati...
Culture
PracticesStructure
... all three are essential,
but where you start
is also essential…
WHERE TO START?
WHAT DO WE MEAN
BY STRUCTURE?
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlogs
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlogs Teams
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Backlogs Teams Working Tested
Software
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
• INVEST
• CCC
• Small enough
for the team to
develop in a
d...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
• INVEST
• CCC
• Small enough
for the team to
develop in a
d...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
• INVEST
• CCC
• Small enough
for the team to
develop in a
d...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
• INVEST
• CCC
• Small enough
for the team to
develop in a
d...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Clarity Accountability Measureable
P...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Clarity Accountability Measureable
P...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Clarity Accountability Measureable
P...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Clarity Accountability Measureable
P...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Purpose Autonomy Mastery
• Understan...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Purpose Autonomy Mastery
• Understan...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Purpose Autonomy Mastery
• Understan...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
Why Are They Important?
Purpose Autonomy Mastery
• Understan...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
What Do They Look Like at Scale?
Governance Structure Metric...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
What Do They Look Like at Scale?
Governance Structure Metric...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
What Do They Look Like at Scale?
Governance Structure Metric...
Teams
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Backlog
Working
Tested
Software
What Do They Look Like at Scale?
Governance Structure Metric...
ORGANIZATIONAL
BARRIERS TO AGILE
Team
Matrixed
Organizations
Team
Matrixed
Organizations
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Team
Matrixed
Organizations
Limited Access
to Subject Matter
Expertise
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Team
Matrixed
Organizations
Limited Access
to Subject Matter
Expertise
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Shared
Requirements
Be...
Matrixed
Organizations
Limited Access
to Subject Matter
Expertise
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Too Much Work
In Proce...
Matrixed
Organizations
Limited Access
to Subject Matter
Expertise
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Too Much Work
In Proce...
Matrixed
Organizations
Limited Access
to Subject Matter
Expertise
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Too Much Work
In Proce...
Matrixed
Organizations
Limited Access
to Subject Matter
Expertise
Non-instantly
Available
Resources
Too Much Work
In Proce...
LEADINGAGILE THEORY
OF TRANSFORMATION
Theory of Transformation
Adopting agile is about
forming teams, building
backlogs, and regularly
producing increments of
w...
Theory of Transformation
Adopting agile at scale is
about defining structure,
establishing governance, and
creating a metr...
Theory of Transformation
Anything that gets in the
way of forming teams,
building backlogs, and
producing working tested
s...
Theory of Transformation
Solid agile practices will help
operationalize the system and
encourage a healthy,
adaptive, and ...
MAPPING YOUR AGILE
TRANSFORMATION
Predictability
Adaptability
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AE
PC
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
Project
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
Project Pilot
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
Project Pilot
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
Adopt Pilot
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
Low Trust
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
Low Trust
LOB
Becom...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Traditional Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
Low Trust
LOB
Becom...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
Low Trust
LOB
Become...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
Low Trust
LOB
Become...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
LOB
LOB
LOB
LOB
Low Trus...
Corollary One:
Agile can mean different
things to different companies
and not all agile approaches
will work well for ever...
INCREMENTAL AND
ITERATIVE IMPROVEMENT
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
Org
Slice
Low Trust
Beco...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
Org
Slice
Low Trust
Beco...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
Org
Slice
Low Trust
Beco...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
Org
Slice
Low Trust
Beco...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
Org
Slice
Low Trust
Beco...
Predictability
Adaptability
Emergence
Convergence
AEPE
PC AC
Ad-Hoc
Lean/Agile Agile
Lean Startup
Org
Slice
Low Trust
Beco...
Corollary Two:
Organizational change can be
mapped out in such a way
that outcomes are
measureable and predictable
and eco...
DEVELOPING YOUR
ROADMAP
Team
Database
Report
Screen
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
Structure Governa...
Team
Database
Report
Screen
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
Structure Governa...
Team
Database
Report
Screen
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
Governance
Metric...
Team
Database
Report
Screen
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
User	Story
Governance
Metric...
STRUCTURE
Services Teams – These teams
support common services across
product lines. These teams support the
needs of the product te...
Product Teams – These teams
integrate services and write customer
facing features. This is the proto-
typical Scrum team.
...
Programs Teams – These teams
define requirements, set technical
direction, and provide context and
coordination.
Product T...
Portfolio Teams – These teams
govern the portfolio and make sure that
work is moving through the system.
Programs Teams – ...
Team Team Team Team
TeamTeamTeam
Product &
Services
Teams
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTeamTeam
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTeamTeam
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
GOVERNANCE
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTeamTeam
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Product &
Services
Teams
Scrum
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTeamTeam
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTeamTeam
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
METRICS
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
• Backlog Size
• Velocity
•...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
• Cycle Time
• Features Blocked
• Rework/D...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
• Backlog Size
• Velocity
• Burndown
• Escaped ...
Corollary Three:
Organizational constructs,
governance models, metrics
and controls can be
established without violating
t...
INCREMENTAL
TRANSFORMATION
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
ITERATIVE
TRANSFORMATION
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Team
Team Team Team
Team Team Team Team
TeamTea...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Iteration Four
Team
Team Team Team
...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Iteration Five
Team Team
Team Team ...
ITERATIVE &
INCREMETNAL CHANGE
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Iteration One
Team Team
Team Team T...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Team Team
Team Team Team
TeamTeamTe...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Iteration Three
Agile Rollout
Itera...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Iteration Four
Agile Rollout
Iterat...
Product &
Services
Teams
Program
Teams
Portfolio
Teams
Scrum
Kanban
Kanban
Agile Pilot
Iteration Five
Agile Rollout
Iterat...
Corollary Four:
Organizations can adopt agile
safely and pragmatically by
iteratively and incrementally
introducing struct...
SUMMARY
Theory of Transformation
Adopting agile is about
forming teams, building
backlogs, and regularly
producing increments of
w...
Theory of Transformation
Adopting agile at scale is
about defining structure,
establishing governance, and
creating a metr...
Theory of Transformation
Anything that gets in the
way of forming teams,
building backlogs, and
producing working tested
s...
Theory of Transformation
Solid agile practices will help
operationalize the system and
encourage a healthy,
adaptive, and ...
Corollary One:
Agile can mean different
things to different companies
and not all agile approaches
will work well for ever...
Corollary Two:
Organizational change can be
mapped out in such a way
that outcomes are
measureable and predictable
and eco...
Corollary Three:
Organizational constructs,
governance models, metrics
and controls can be
established without violating
t...
Corollary Four:
Organizations can adopt agile
safely and pragmatically by
iteratively and incrementally
introducing struct...
Summary
By focusing on the
fundamentals of agile delivery,
while systematically and
methodically breaking
dependencies, we...
WHY AGILE IS FAILING
IN LARGE ENTERPRISES
…and what you can do about it
Why agile is failing in large enterprises
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Why agile is failing in large enterprises

Agile works. We get it. You don’t have to sell people on the underlying principles anymore. Even so, many large-scale agile transformations are struggling. Some have failed. Others can’t figure out why things aren't working after multiple attempts. It’s easy to blame the people, the process, and the culture. And it’s especially easy to blame management. However, the underlying problem is that most large organizations weren’t built to be agile. You need a way to safely and pragmatically refactor your company into an organization that can adopt agile and sustain the transformation. Mike Cottmeyer introduces a framework for understanding the type of company in which you work, its delivery constraints, and likely challenges you’ll face in your agile transformation. Mike shares a strategy for establishing an end-state vision and operational model to guide your transformation. Finally, he defines an approach for incrementally introducing change, measuring outcomes, and sustaining those changes.

Check out Mike giving this talk live https://www.leadingagile.com/why-agile-fails

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Why agile is failing in large enterprises

  1. 1. WHY AGILE IS FAILING IN LARGE ENTERPRISES
  2. 2. WHY AGILE IS FAILING IN LARGE ENTERPRISES …and what you can do about it
  3. 3. mike@leadingagile.com 404-312-1471 www.leadingagile.com twitter.com/mcottmeyer facebook.com/leadingagile linkedin.com/in/cottmeyer MIKE COTTMEYER
  4. 4. A BRIEF HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
  5. 5. 1943 1950- 1960s 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 USAF & NASA X-15 hypersonic jet Iterative Incremental Delivery Hirotaka Takeuchi & Ikujiro Nonaka The New New Product Development Game 1990 - Sutherland & Schwaber Scrum Framework DSDN Consortium Dynamic System Development Method 1996 - Beck, Cunningham, Jeffries Extreme Programming Jeff de Luca Feature Driven Development Alistair Cockburn Crystal Methodologies Robert Charette Lean Development THE AGILE MANIFESTO Taiichi Ohno Toyota Production System Kanban Hardware Software
  6. 6. Individuals & interactions Processes & toolsover Working software Comprehensive documentation over Customer collaboration Contract negotiationover Responding to change Following a planover That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Source: www.agilemanifesto.org MANIFESTO VALUES
  7. 7. Satisfy the Customer Welcome Change Deliver Frequently Collaborate Daily Support & Trust Motivated Teams Promote Face-to-Face Conversations Deliver Working Software Promote Sustainable Pace Promote Technical Excellence Maximize Through Simplicity Have Self-Organized Teams Reflect & Adjust Regularly Source: www.agilemanifesto.org MANIFESTO PRINCIPLES
  8. 8. BELIEFS ABOUT AGILE & TRANSFORMATION
  9. 9. Culture PracticesStructure BELIEFS…
  10. 10. Culture PracticesStructure • Focused on changing hearts and minds • Focused on being agile rather than doing agile • Focused on values and principles CULTURE DRIVEN
  11. 11. Culture PracticesStructure • Focused on changing hearts and minds • Focused on being agile rather than doing agile • Focused on values and principles • Belief that delivery systems will emerge based on new thinking CULTURE DRIVEN
  12. 12. Practices StructureCulture • Focused on the things that you do • Focused on roles, ceremonies, and artifacts • Can be management driven or technically driven PRACTICES DRIVEN
  13. 13. Practices StructureCulture • Focused on the things that you do • Focused on roles, ceremonies, and artifacts • Can be management driven or technically driven • Belief that agile is a process or way to work PRACTICES DRIVEN
  14. 14. Structure CulturePractices • Focused on forming teams and governing the flow of value • Focused on aligning the organization first STRUCTURE DRIVEN
  15. 15. Structure CulturePractices • Focused on forming teams and governing the flow of value • Focused on aligning the organization first • Belief that culture and practices only emerge within a rational structural and planning framework STRUCTURE DRIVEN
  16. 16. Culture PracticesStructure ... all three are essential, but where you start is also essential… WHERE TO START?
  17. 17. WHAT DO WE MEAN BY STRUCTURE?
  18. 18. Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlogs
  19. 19. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlogs Teams
  20. 20. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Backlogs Teams Working Tested Software
  21. 21. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software • INVEST • CCC • Small enough for the team to develop in a day or so • Everything and everyone necessary to deliver • Meets acceptance criteria • No known defects • No technical debt What Do I Mean? Backlogs Teams Working Tested Software
  22. 22. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software • INVEST • CCC • Small enough for the team to develop in a day or so • Everything and everyone necessary to deliver • Meets acceptance criteria • No known defects • No technical debt What Do I Mean? Backlogs Teams Working Tested Software
  23. 23. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software • INVEST • CCC • Small enough for the team to develop in a day or so • Everything and everyone necessary to deliver • Meets acceptance criteria • No known defects • No technical debt What Do I Mean? Backlogs Teams Working Tested Software
  24. 24. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software • INVEST • CCC • Small enough for the team to develop in a day or so • Everything and everyone necessary to deliver • Meets acceptance criteria • No known defects • No technical debt What Do I Mean? Backlogs Teams Working Tested Software
  25. 25. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Clarity Accountability Measureable Progress • People have clarity around what to build • People understand how it maps to the big picture • Teams can be held accountable for delivery • No indeterminate work piling up at the end of the project • 90% done, 90% left to do
  26. 26. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Clarity Accountability Measureable Progress • People have clarity around what to build • People understand how it maps to the big picture • Teams can be held accountable for delivery • No indeterminate work piling up at the end of the project • 90% done, 90% left to do
  27. 27. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Clarity Accountability Measureable Progress • People have clarity around what to build • People understand how it maps to the big picture • Teams can be held accountable for delivery • No indeterminate work piling up at the end of the project • 90% done, 90% left to do
  28. 28. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Clarity Accountability Measureable Progress • People have clarity around what to build • People understand how it maps to the big picture • Teams can be held accountable for delivery • No indeterminate work piling up at the end of the project • 90% done, 90% left to do
  29. 29. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Purpose Autonomy Mastery • Understanding the backlog gives meaning to work • Local decision making gives people a sense of power and control over their work • People can demonstrate that they are good at what they do
  30. 30. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Purpose Autonomy Mastery • Understanding the backlog gives meaning to work • Local decision making gives people a sense of power and control over their work • People can demonstrate that they are good at what they do
  31. 31. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Purpose Autonomy Mastery • Understanding the backlog gives meaning to work • Local decision making gives people a sense of power and control over their work • People can demonstrate that they are good at what they do
  32. 32. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software Why Are They Important? Purpose Autonomy Mastery • Understanding the backlog gives meaning to work • Local decision making gives people a sense of power and control over their work • People can demonstrate that they are good at what they do
  33. 33. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software What Do They Look Like at Scale? Governance Structure Metrics & Tools • Governance is the way we make economic tradeoffs in the face of constraints • They way we form teams and foster collaboration at all levels of the organization • What do we measure, how do we baseline performance and show improvement?
  34. 34. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software What Do They Look Like at Scale? Governance Structure Metrics & Tools • Governance is the way we make economic tradeoffs in the face of constraints • They way we form teams and foster collaboration at all levels of the organization • What do we measure, how do we baseline performance and show improvement?
  35. 35. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software What Do They Look Like at Scale? Governance Structure Metrics & Tools • Governance is the way we make economic tradeoffs in the face of constraints • They way we form teams and foster collaboration at all levels of the organization • What do we measure, how do we baseline performance and show improvement?
  36. 36. Teams Backlog Backlog Backlog Backlog Working Tested Software What Do They Look Like at Scale? Governance Structure Metrics & Tools • Governance is the way we make economic tradeoffs in the face of constraints • They way we form teams and foster collaboration at all levels of the organization • What do we measure, how do we baseline performance and show improvement?
  37. 37. ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS TO AGILE
  38. 38. Team
  39. 39. Matrixed Organizations Team
  40. 40. Matrixed Organizations Non-instantly Available Resources Team
  41. 41. Matrixed Organizations Limited Access to Subject Matter Expertise Non-instantly Available Resources Team
  42. 42. Matrixed Organizations Limited Access to Subject Matter Expertise Non-instantly Available Resources Shared Requirements Between Teams Team
  43. 43. Matrixed Organizations Limited Access to Subject Matter Expertise Non-instantly Available Resources Too Much Work In Process Shared Requirements Between Teams Team
  44. 44. Matrixed Organizations Limited Access to Subject Matter Expertise Non-instantly Available Resources Too Much Work In Process Shared Requirements Between Teams Large Products with Diverse Technology Team
  45. 45. Matrixed Organizations Limited Access to Subject Matter Expertise Non-instantly Available Resources Too Much Work In Process Shared Requirements Between Teams Technical Debt & Defects Large Products with Diverse Technology Team
  46. 46. Matrixed Organizations Limited Access to Subject Matter Expertise Non-instantly Available Resources Too Much Work In Process Low Cohesion & Tight Coupling Shared Requirements Between Teams Technical Debt & Defects Large Products with Diverse Technology Team
  47. 47. LEADINGAGILE THEORY OF TRANSFORMATION
  48. 48. Theory of Transformation Adopting agile is about forming teams, building backlogs, and regularly producing increments of working tested software
  49. 49. Theory of Transformation Adopting agile at scale is about defining structure, establishing governance, and creating a metrics and tooling strategy that supports agility
  50. 50. Theory of Transformation Anything that gets in the way of forming teams, building backlogs, and producing working tested software is an impediment to transformation
  51. 51. Theory of Transformation Solid agile practices will help operationalize the system and encourage a healthy, adaptive, and empowered culture emerge over time
  52. 52. MAPPING YOUR AGILE TRANSFORMATION
  53. 53. Predictability Adaptability
  54. 54. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence
  55. 55. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence
  56. 56. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AE PC
  57. 57. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC
  58. 58. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc
  59. 59. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional
  60. 60. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile
  61. 61. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup
  62. 62. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup Project
  63. 63. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup Project Pilot
  64. 64. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup Project Pilot
  65. 65. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup Adopt Pilot
  66. 66. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup LOB
  67. 67. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup LOB Low Trust
  68. 68. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup LOB Low Trust LOB Become Predictable
  69. 69. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Traditional Agile Lean Startup LOB Low Trust LOB Become Predictable
  70. 70. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup LOB Low Trust LOB Become Predictable
  71. 71. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup LOB Low Trust LOB Become Predictable LOB Reduce Batch Size
  72. 72. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup LOB LOB LOB LOB Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple
  73. 73. Corollary One: Agile can mean different things to different companies and not all agile approaches will work well for every organization
  74. 74. INCREMENTAL AND ITERATIVE IMPROVEMENT
  75. 75. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup Org Slice Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple
  76. 76. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup Org Slice Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple Phase One
  77. 77. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup Org Slice Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple Phase One Phase Two
  78. 78. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup Org Slice Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple Phase One Phase Three Phase Two
  79. 79. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup Org Slice Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple Phase One Phase Three Phase Four Phase Two
  80. 80. Predictability Adaptability Emergence Convergence AEPE PC AC Ad-Hoc Lean/Agile Agile Lean Startup Org Slice Low Trust Become Predictable Reduce Batch Size Fully Decouple Phase One Phase Three Phase Four Phase Two Phase Five
  81. 81. Corollary Two: Organizational change can be mapped out in such a way that outcomes are measureable and predictable and economically justified
  82. 82. DEVELOPING YOUR ROADMAP
  83. 83. Team Database Report Screen User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story Structure Governance Metrics & Tools
  84. 84. Team Database Report Screen User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story Structure Governance Metrics & Tools
  85. 85. Team Database Report Screen User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story Governance Metrics & Tools Structure
  86. 86. Team Database Report Screen User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story User Story Governance Metrics & Tools Structure
  87. 87. STRUCTURE
  88. 88. Services Teams – These teams support common services across product lines. These teams support the needs of the product teams. Team
  89. 89. Product Teams – These teams integrate services and write customer facing features. This is the proto- typical Scrum team. Services Teams – These teams support common services across product lines. These teams support the needs of the product teams. Team Team
  90. 90. Programs Teams – These teams define requirements, set technical direction, and provide context and coordination. Product Teams – These teams integrate services and write customer facing features. This is the proto- typical Scrum team. Services Teams – These teams support common services across product lines. These teams support the needs of the product teams. Team Team Team
  91. 91. Portfolio Teams – These teams govern the portfolio and make sure that work is moving through the system. Programs Teams – These teams define requirements, set technical direction, and provide context and coordination. Product Teams – These teams integrate services and write customer facing features. This is the proto- typical Scrum team. Services Teams – These teams support common services across product lines. These teams support the needs of the product teams. Team Team Team Team
  92. 92. Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Product & Services Teams
  93. 93. Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Product & Services Teams Program Teams
  94. 94. Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams
  95. 95. GOVERNANCE
  96. 96. Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams
  97. 97. Product & Services Teams Scrum Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Program Teams Portfolio Teams
  98. 98. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam
  99. 99. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam
  100. 100. METRICS
  101. 101. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam
  102. 102. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team • Backlog Size • Velocity • Burndown • Escaped Defects • Commit % Ratio • Acceptance % Ratio • Scope Change
  103. 103. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team • Cycle Time • Features Blocked • Rework/Defects • Backlog Size • Velocity • Burndown • Escaped Defects • Commit % Rate • Acceptance % Ratio • Scope Change
  104. 104. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban • Backlog Size • Velocity • Burndown • Escaped Defects • Commit % Ratio • Acceptance % Ratio • Scope Change • Cycle Time • Features Blocked • Rework/Defects • Takt Time/Cycle Time • Time/Cost/Scope/Value • RIO/Capitalization
  105. 105. Corollary Three: Organizational constructs, governance models, metrics and controls can be established without violating the principles of agile
  106. 106. INCREMENTAL TRANSFORMATION
  107. 107. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Agile Pilot Increment One
  108. 108. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Agile Pilot Increment One Agile Rollout Increment Two
  109. 109. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Agile Pilot Increment One Agile Rollout Three - N
  110. 110. ITERATIVE TRANSFORMATION
  111. 111. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Agile Pilot Iteration One
  112. 112. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Agile Pilot Iteration Two
  113. 113. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Agile Pilot Iteration Three
  114. 114. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Iteration Four Team Team Team Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam
  115. 115. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Iteration Five Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Team Team Team
  116. 116. ITERATIVE & INCREMETNAL CHANGE
  117. 117. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Iteration One Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Team Team Team
  118. 118. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Team Team Team Iteration Two
  119. 119. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Iteration Three Agile Rollout Iteration One Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Team Team Team
  120. 120. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Iteration Four Agile Rollout Iteration Two Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Team Team Team
  121. 121. Product & Services Teams Program Teams Portfolio Teams Scrum Kanban Kanban Agile Pilot Iteration Five Agile Rollout Iteration Three Team Team Team Team Team TeamTeamTeam Team Team Team
  122. 122. Corollary Four: Organizations can adopt agile safely and pragmatically by iteratively and incrementally introducing structure, governance, and metrics and maturing practices and culture over time
  123. 123. SUMMARY
  124. 124. Theory of Transformation Adopting agile is about forming teams, building backlogs, and regularly producing increments of working tested software
  125. 125. Theory of Transformation Adopting agile at scale is about defining structure, establishing governance, and creating a metrics and tooling strategy that supports agility
  126. 126. Theory of Transformation Anything that gets in the way of forming teams, building backlogs, and producing working tested software is an impediment to transformation
  127. 127. Theory of Transformation Solid agile practices will help operationalize the system and encourage a healthy, adaptive, and empowered culture emerge over time
  128. 128. Corollary One: Agile can mean different things to different companies and not all agile approaches will work well for every organization
  129. 129. Corollary Two: Organizational change can be mapped out in such a way that outcomes are measureable and predictable and economically justified
  130. 130. Corollary Three: Organizational constructs, governance models, metrics and controls can be established without violating the principles of agile
  131. 131. Corollary Four: Organizations can adopt agile safely and pragmatically by iteratively and incrementally introducing structure, governance, and metrics and maturing practices and culture over time
  132. 132. Summary By focusing on the fundamentals of agile delivery, while systematically and methodically breaking dependencies, we can achieve true enterprise agility
  133. 133. WHY AGILE IS FAILING IN LARGE ENTERPRISES …and what you can do about it

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