sara cortesi politecnico di milano . INDACO dept. . DIS . school of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability module System Design for Sustainability learning subject 7 Design exercise learning resource 7.2 (Un)sustainable mobility
MOBILITY: A COMPLEX PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION AREA MOBILITY IS DEEPLY EMBEDDED IN ALL ASPECTS OF LIFE mobility covers a wide range of activities (e.g from people to goods transport) and kinds of use (e.g. private and public) MOBILITY COVERS A WIDE RANGE OF MEANS OF TRANSPORT By road (foot, bicycle, car, ...), train, sea (ship, …), air MOBILITY INVOLVES A COMPLEX CHAIN OF ACTORS private producers of vehicles, energy suppliers, infrastructure building companies, private and public transport service companies, insurance companies, political authorities, users, …
UNSUSTAINABLE MOBILITY In the transition towards sustainable consumption and production patterns mobility is one of the priority areas (together with food and energy ) in which to intervene to drastically reduce the use of resources per “unit of satisfaction” [Suh, 2004; Weideima et al. 2005]
. an high dependence on fossil resources and a consequent . high level of environmental pollutants and damaging emissions UNSUSTAINABLE MOBILITY ISSUES: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
UNSUSTAINABLE MOBILITY ISSUES: SOCIO-ETHICAL ISSUES . an increase in congestion levels
UNSUSTAINABLE MOBILITY ISSUES: SOCIO-ETHICAL ISSUES . an increase in congestion levels . a still insecurity of transport , with high levels of injured people and fatalities “… in 2008 over 2 million traffic accidents resulted in 120,000 deaths and 2,5 million injured people in the whole European region” [World Health Organization]
UNSUSTAINABLE MOBILITY ISSUES: SOCIO-ETHICAL ISSUES . an increase in congestion levels . a still un-safety of transport, with high levels of injured people and fatalities . a lack in equity of access to mobility “ Three-quarters of journeys travelled in EU-25 are made by cars, while the 80% of the world population has no access to motor vehicles yet” [EC, 2006]
THE AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION SYSTEM Vehicle manufacturers represent the pivotal actor, and their primarily source of profits is the sale of new vehicles . In order to increase profit margins, they have adopted a strategy of mass production , with high volume of output and high volume of sales to global markets. The main reason is that some of the production technologies necessary in the manufacture processes are high capital intensive , and therefore companies have to sell greater number of cars in order to recover the initial investments.
THE AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION SYSTEM … this brought to: THE PRESENCE OF LARGE CENTRALIZED AND CONSERVATIVE MASS PRODUCERS AIMING AT SELLING THE HIGHEST POSSIBLE AMOUNT OF VEHICLES TO GLOBAL MARKETS
USE DISPOSAL THE TRADITIONAL AUTOMOTIVE BUSINESS MODEL PRE-PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION Car Producer Car dealer (franchisee) CAR PAYMENT PAYMENT PAYMENT Component Suppliers Material Producers
THE TRADITIONAL AUTOMOTIVE BUSINESS MODEL USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION Car Producer Car dealer (franchisee) CAR PAYMENT PAYMENT PAYMENT Component Suppliers Material Producers PAYMENT User PRIMARY SOURCE OF PROFIT: the sale of new vehicles
THE TRADITIONAL AUTOMOTIVE BUSINESS MODEL USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION Car Producer Car dealer (franchisee) CAR PAYMENT PAYMENT PAYMENT Component Suppliers Material Producers SECONDARY SOURCE OF PROFIT: the sale of spare parts Garage PAYMENT MAINTENANCE SPARE PARTS SPARE PARTS PAYMENT PAYMENT User
CAR PRODUCERS do not catch most of the earnings associated with the use of the vehicle THE TRADITIONAL AUTOMOTIVE BUSINESS MODEL USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION Car Producer Car dealer (franchisee) CAR PAYMENT PAYMENT PAYMENT Component Suppliers Material Producers Garage PAYMENT MAINTENANCE SPARE PARTS SPARE PARTS PAYMENT Energy Supplier PAYMENT ENERGY /FUEL Insurance Company PAYMENT INSURANCE Parking space Service PAYMENT PARKING SPACE PAYMENT User
THE TRADITIONAL AUTOMOTIVE BUSINESS MODEL USE DISPOSAL PRE-PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION Car Producer Car dealer (franchisee) CAR PAYMENT PAYMENT PAYMENT Component Suppliers Material Producers Garage PAYMENT MAINTENANCE SPARE PARTS SPARE PARTS PAYMENT Energy Supplier PAYMENT ENERGY /FUEL Insurance Company PAYMENT INSURANCE Parking space Service PAYMENT PARKING SPACE Scrap yard PAYMENT CAR PAYMENT User
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR . in the pre-production and production phases , caused by high levels of energy, water and non-renewable materials used in the manufacturing processes (and the related emissions); and caused by the use of some specific production processes like painting and metal finishing; . in the distribution phase , caused by the complex logistic and distribution system required for global market sales; . in the use phase , caused by the several pollutants emitted by the vast majority of cars; . in the disposal phase , caused by the high waste flow (and potential toxicity) at the end-of-life of cars. [ Nieuwenhuis and Wells, 2003 ]
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR Example
Cars collectively represent the largest single source of global air pollution, accounting for 30% of pollutants emissions in industrialized countries and 17% of CO 2 emissions [ Nieuwenhuis and Wells, 2003 ] THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR
THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR . the average European car is used for 29 min/day . during its average 12-year lifespan, a car is used for only 3 months, after which it is discarded . the average speed of cars in European city centres is 17 km/hour, in Bangkok is 8 km/hour, i.e. it is faster to go by bike [ Mont, 2009 ]
IS THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENT? PRODUCTION: - interest in resources consumption reduction USE: - indifference in resources consumption reduction - indifference in increasing product life span DISPOSAL: - interest in facilitating disassembly, materials recycling (but not components reuse) due to the ELV directive WHAT ARE THE CAR PRODUCER’S ECONOMIC INTERESTS? DO THESE INTERESTS CONVERGE WITH A RESOURCES OPTIMIZATION?
IS THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENT? PRODUCTION: - indifference in resources consumption reduction USE: - indifference in resources consumption reduction ( interest in selling as much fuel as possible) - indifference in increasing product life span DISPOSAL: - indifference in facilitating disassembly, components reuse and materials recycling WHAT ARE THE ENERGY SUPPLIER ECONOMIC INTERESTS? DO THESE INTERESTS CONVERGE WITH A RESOURCES OPTIMIZATION?
IS THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENT? THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR IS CHARACTERIZED BY STAKEHOLDERS FRAGMENTATION ALONG THE LIFE CYCLE PHASES the consequence is that: THE ECONOMIC INTEREST OF EACH SINGLE ACTOR DOES NOT COINCIDE WITH AN INTEREST IN OPTIMIZING THE USE OF RESOURCES ON A SYSTEM LEVEL
IS THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENT? FOR THIS REASON VEHICLE PRODUCERS ARE NOT DIRECTLY INTERESTED IN DESIGNING AND REALIZING HIGH EFFICIENT, LONG LASTING AND REUSABLE VEHICLES; AND FUEL COMPANIES ARE NOT DIRECTLY INTERESTED IN HAVING IN THE MARKET LOW-CONSUMPTION VEHICLES.
. allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely . is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport modes, and supports a competitive economy . limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise [European Union, Council of Ministers of Transport] SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY DEFINITION
SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY AND PRODUCT INNOVATION Several efforts have been done in the last years in improving the efficiency of transport means [source: www.renalut-ze.com]
ARE INNOVATIONS ON A PROCESS AND PRODUCT LEVEL SUFFICIENT TO REACH THE RADICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REDUCTIONS NEEDED BY A TRANSITION TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY? SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY AND PRODUCT INNOVATION
SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY AND PRODUCT INNOVATION . energy efficiency of cars has improved by roughly 10% between 1990 and 2004 SOURCE: EEA (2008) . at the same time there has been an increase of 30% in car travel demand . resulting in an increasing total fuel consumption of approximately 20%
SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY AND PRODUCT INNOVATION No. If we take in consideration the single product, its environmental performance has been improved in the last years. But we have also to consider the population increase, and the consequent increase in travel demand. As a result, there is an increase in environmental resources consumption and environmental impacts. ARE INNOVATIONS ON A PROCESS AND PRODUCT LEVEL SUFFICIENT CONDITION TO REACH THE RADICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REDUCTIONS NEEDED BY A TRANSITION TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY?
ARE PRODUCERS ECONOMICALLY INTERESTED IN REDUCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THEIR PRODUCTS? SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY AND PRODUCT INNOVATION (in the traditional economic model) producers economic interests do not always converge with an interest in optimizing resources consumption
IF WE WANT TO PROMOTE CHANGES THAT BRING TO RADICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REDUCTION: SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY it’s necessary (and fundamental) to innovate on a product level … but also (and especially) to innovate the system of production & consumption within which the product is inserted (designing the system of actors and the related interactions, in order to make the delivered “mobility satisfaction”eco-efficient)
. the improvement of the sustainability performance of all means of transport . drastic reduction of inefficient use of private vehicles (in industrialized countries) . the promotion of more sustainable collective transport + . increase of access to (environmentally sustainable) transport for low-income communities SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY GENERAL STRATEGIES
A SATISFACTION-SYSTEM DESIGN APPROACH: SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY shifts the focus from means of transport to > the mobility system that satisfies a particular demand for transportation (even more upstream) shifts the focus to > the particular satisfaction that a transportation is giving access to [provide the same (improved) particular satisfaction by reducing/avoiding the need for mobility]
Potential actors to be involved: . private producers of vehicles . energy suppliers . infrastructure building companies . private and public transport service companies . insurance companies . political authorities . users . actors related to each particular demand of satisfaction . ... THE ACTORS IN THE MOBILITY SYSTEM
Yélomobile Yélomobile (formerly Liselec) is a partnership made up by La Rochelle local administration , Proxiway (a service transport company), Peugeot/Citroen (which provides the electric vehicles), and Alcatel (which provides the electronic systems). Yélomobile offers a service of access to a fleet of 50 electric cars. Users have a badge and pay per travelled kms and duration of use . Service includes the electric energy , insurance, free parking spaces and facilities for the use of public transport
Yélomobile PRE-PRODUCTION, PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL Material Suppliers PAYMENT PAYMENT Components Suppliers User ACCESS TO CAR PAYMENT PER KM FACILITIES FOR THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT Parking and Recharging Space PARKING SPACE + RECHARGING SPACE Scrap yard Peugeot / Citroen La Rochelle Public Administration Transport Company (Proxiway) PARTNERSHIP IT Company (Alcatel) ENERGY Electric Supplier INSURANCE Insurance Company PAYMENT Garages MAINTENANCE SPARE PARTS PAYMENT
Yélomobile – IS THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENT? PRODUCTION: - interest in resources consumption reduction USE: - interest in energy resources consumption reduction - interest in increasing product life span DISPOSAL: - interest in facilitating disassembly, components reuse and materials recycling
Yélomobile – IS THE SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENT? The innovative interaction between the different actors constituting the partnership, and the innovative interaction between the partnership and the user make the partnership economically interested in reducing the energy consumption in use, extending the vehicle life span, and in designing easy to disassembly vehicles (in order to reuse components and recycle materials).
Praxitele Praxitele is a partnership made up by CGEA (a service transport company), Renault (which provides the electric vehicles), Dassault (which provides the electronic systems), and EDF (an energy supplier) Praxitele offers a service of access to a fleet of electric cars. Users have a badge and pay per kms covered and time of use. Service includes the electric energy, insurance, and free parking spaces.
Riversimple a small English transport company, whose goal is to “ sell mobility as a service, not a car as a product” . It designed (with an open source approach) a hydrogen vehicle, called ‘Riversimple Urban Car’, which will be available from 2012 only with leasing agreements. Riversimple will keep the ownership of the car and clients will pay a fixed monthly sum , which includes the energy required to power the vehicle, insurance and all the needed maintenance and repairs . At the end of the contract, Riversimple will take back the vehicle .
DEUTSCHE BAHN Integrated mobility scheme: train + car sharing + bike sharing
+BC CYCLING ASSOCIATION Bikers learn to maintain their own bikes and are helped to commute by bike [Source: Meroni, 2006]
WALKING BUS Children get to school by themselves, enjoyably and safely. [Source: Meroni, 2006]
BICYCLE FLEA MARKET People interested in ecological transport get cheap bicycles [Source: Meroni, 2006]
MFG CYCLING ASSOCIATION Paths and services for urban cyclists are enhanced [Source: Meroni, 2006]
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