26 03 renewable and distributed energy_lorenzo mattarolo


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26 03 renewable and distributed energy_lorenzo mattarolo

  1. 1. Renewable and distributed energy for alocal and sustainable developmentLorenzo MattaroloProgram Manager UNESCO Chair, Energy for Sustainable DevelopmentIngegneria senza Frontiere - MI26th March 2013
  2. 2. Technologies and AppropriatenessSTARTING POINT - THE CONTEXTOver reliance on colonial administration TOP DOWNTop-down approach to economic developmentLow technological capacity developmentNEW APPROACHImportance of local resources and local human capitalSupported by Schumacher – “Small is Beautiful, Economics as if People Mattered” (1973)Identification of technologies 1. small-scale 2. labour-intensive BOTTOM UP 3. energy efficient 4. environmental friendly 5. locally controlledNEW CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENTTechnology that fits in the countrys infrastructure, affordable,easy to properly maintain, not destructive to the environment. SUSTAINABILITY(Kaplan, 1994) Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  3. 3. Appropriate & sustainableTechnology characterized by technical, social, economic andenvironmental peculiarities permitting a sustainable development Social Sustainability ATEnvironmental Sustainability Economic Sustainability FEASIBILITY is precondition for sustainability Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  4. 4. Appropriate technologiesImportance of boundary conditions• flexibility to adapt to local conditions• not related to a defined technology mix• scaled to the context• tailored to the needed services• accounting the local cultureOwnership/commitment• involvement of final users• end-users requirements• installation, management and maintenanceThe ‘space pen’ example!• enhancing job creation• strengthening of research institutions to support local productionEconomic feasibility• business model enhancing sustainability• counting the coverage and cost Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  5. 5. Appropriate technologiesReplicability• Increase access to new technologies of scale• Innovative models to scale up technologies• Preserving the environmentFunctionality• availability of local materials• impact on human capacity• final user ownership (Asociación Argentina de Energía Eólica )Impact• Access to modern energy services and electricity necessarily need to be linked to other social or economic strategy.• The implementation of energy programmes have to be measured over socio- economic indicators such as: quality of life, education, health, information, agriculture, transport, promotion of small enterprises. Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  6. 6. Strategies for access to energyThe GOAL is not to bring kWh Energy OUTPUT • Electricity or Thermal Energy Services • Education , Health, ICT…. OUTCOME • Access to resources: food, water, Development • Human promotion >> individual • Sustainable Growth >> society IMPACT Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  7. 7. Strategies for access to energy Whatever Technologies or ensemble of technologies Some TECHNICAL elements should be included in the strategy• Step 1: Deep analysis of current and forecast local Needs• Step 2: Accurate Assessment of local Resources• Step 3: Optimize the cost/efficiency of the match Need – Resources• Step 4: Choice of the technologies Ex ante evaluation Gas Needs Resources An integrated Electric Energy system of appropriate End Use technologies /Services Other Supply Ex post evaluation Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  8. 8. Strategies for access to energy Step 1 Needs AssessmentBasic Living Condition• Cooking: substitution of firewood, agricultural waste, cattle dung• Lighting: public/street lighting and households Strong dependency on• Drinking water: purification, desalination, pumping the LOCAL CONTEST• Health: hot waters, distilled water, sterilization• Education: schools In terms of social perspectiveAgricultural Productivity• Irrigation: Most important productive application requiring powerSmall Scale Industries• Industry: flour mills , oil extraction plants, chilling center, artisanal activities…Transportation• Transport substitution of human and animal power Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  9. 9. Strategies for access to energyStep 2Resources AssessmentWind MapSolar IrradiationHydrogeological situationBiomass availabilityGeothermal conditions For the security of the supply • electric grid in the neighborhood • fossil fuel availability • storage systems Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  10. 10. Strategies for access to energyStep 3Need / ResourcesEfficiency Whenever you have Hydro And no competition with fresh water exists, USED it Whenever you have Biomass And no cultural limitations exists, USED it for Whenever you have Wind And no specific problem for transportation USED it You have almost always SUN lowest cost/efficiency solutions, USED it only when nothing else is available Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  11. 11. Strategies for access to energyStep 4Energy Conversion TechnologiesSelectionsWind• mechanical conversion for water pumps and mills• electric conversion for electricity distributionSolar• collectors for hot water supplying, stills for potable water, crop driers• direct conversion with photovoltaic arraysHydro• Water wheels for mechanical shaft power• Micro – Mini hydro power plant for electricityBiomass• Organic wastes anaerobic fermentation for biogas• Fermentation of biomass for alcohols production• Biomass pyrolysis Appropriate Storage Appropriate Distribution Systems Selections Systems Selections • “Smart” Idea of Grid: • Water tanks • Gas pipeline, Hot water pipe line • Storage batteries Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  12. 12. Strategies for access to energyStep 5: Evaluate the impact on local DevelopmentPhysical Capitalbetter use and management of resources & infrastructuresEnvironmental Capitalconservation of the environmentindoor qualityEconomic Capitaldecreasing the dependence on imported fuelsimproving the balance of paymentdeveloping green economiesSocial Capitalimproving the human living environmentmitigation of mass migration and creation workplacesHuman Capitallocal capacity and attitude to research and innovationParticipatory approach Importance of monitoring and evaluation Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  13. 13. Renewable & Decentralized Energy• Biomass• PV Solar• Thermal Solar• Hydro• Wind Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  14. 14. Biomass EnergyBiomassmeans the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biologicalorigin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and relatedindustries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction ofindustrial and municipal waste Dir 2009/28/EC, art. 2Holistic approach Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  15. 15. Biomass Energy – Supply Chains Materials of different origin with high variability Three supply chains Forest residues Manure Animal fatsWoody manufacturing waste Sewage Lignin-cellulosic crops Agricultural waste Waste Sugar/starch based biomass Municipal waste Energy crops Vegetable oils Industrial waste Waste cooking oils SOLID BIOMASS BIOGAS BIOFUEL Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  17. 17. Biomass Energy – Impact Transport Locally used biomass International traded biomass (Source – REN21, 2012) Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  18. 18. Biomass Energy – Impact Transport Locally used biomass International traded biomass Deforestation consists in the reduction of forestry areas, due Deforestation to an exploitation of the land which is not compensated by the same re-growth rate. Deforestation is taking place in developing countries with high forest concentration (Amazon region, Indonesia, Congo, South Africa, Nigeria). According to FAO, between 2000 and 2010 almost 13 Mha of forests disappeared.Energy-food competition Price of soy oil (Biomass Energy Report, 2010) Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  19. 19. Biomass Energy – ImpactPolicies• Minimize the trade-offs between biomass for food and biomass for fuel• Encourage the use of biomass residues• Encourage sustainable and productive feedstocks and efficient conversion processes Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  20. 20. Distributed generation – BiogasBiogas anaerobic digesters in Rural Areas of Developing Countries Floating-drum Fixed Dome Tubular type Range of digester volume [m3] 5-70 6-91 5-20 Daily output [m3 biogas/m3 DV] 0,3-0,6 0,2-0,5 0,3-0,8 Lifespan [years] 12-15 15-20 2-5 Cost / Cost Tubular Type 1,5 - 3 1,5 – 2,5 1Biogas research areas for Developing Countries: Analysis of the available substrates and assessment of potential biogas yield Digestion of multiple substrate (sewage, municipal and industrial) Small-scale plants which digest alternative substrates to animal manure Solar-powered digester heating and water saving devices for dissemination Bond et al. 2011, Nzila et al. 2012, Mshandete et al. 2009 Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  21. 21. 21Solar EnergyThe solar resourceTechnology trends: PVTechnology trends: Thermal SolarTechnology trends: Thermodynamic Solar Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  22. 22. 22 Solar Energy: PVThe dominant material for creating PV panels is the silicon wafer, which can bemanufactured in three forms:• Monocrystalline (silicon based)• Multicrystalline (silicon based)• Amorphous (new semi-conductor) PVGIS (Photovoltaic Geographical Information System) is a research, demonstration and policy- support instrument for geographical assessment of the solar energy resource in the context of integrated management of distributed energy generation. http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  23. 23. 23 Solar Energy: PV Design of PV systems Solar power is characterized by its intermittence, making it necessary either to provide a grid connection or a storage system (not connected to the grid). Interfacing with the grid Stand-alone installation(www.roofsolarpanels.biz) Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  24. 24. Distributed Generation – PVELECTRICAL APPLIANCES (lights, radio, mobile charger, fan, refrigerator, TV, pump) Size Type Service Characteristics Cost [€] [households, W]Pico-PV Lighting (LED), 1, ≤10 60-240lm 25-80system external devices Lead Acid,Solar Home Lighting (LED, CFL), NiMH, LiMg 1, 10-200 150-600lm 80-250System radio, TV, other devicesMulti-user 2-400, 200-5000SystemResearch areas for Developing Countries:• Adaptability to characteristics of the local context (social acceptance)• Reliability and resilience (dust, rain, irregular charging)• Extension of operating hoursMuggenburg et al. 2012, GIZ 2010, Mahapatra 2009 Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  25. 25. Innovative Supply Chain for PVCurrent supply chain for solar energy in DCsImportation of panels, charge controller, Installation Distributor / Sales Maintenance & Service battery, inverterInnovative supply chain for solar energy in DCs Importation ofTraining in design Training in Installation & cells and Local assembly of solar system Distributors / Sales Maintenance components Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  26. 26. Innovative Supply Chain for PV Solar panel component works Locally assembled solar panelsProduction of charge controllers Assembling of solar street light Installation Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  27. 27. 27 Solar Thermal EnergySolar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. They may be used to heat domestichot water, for space heating, etc..These systems are composed of solar thermal collectors, a storage tank and a circulationloop.The three basic classifications of solar water heaters:• Batch systems which consist of a tank that is directly heated by sunlight (oldest and simplest designs, may be vulnerable to cooldown).• Active systems with pumps to circulate water or a heat transfer fluid.• Passive systems with circulating water or a heat transfer fluid by natural circulation. Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  28. 28. Solar Thermal EnergySolar collectorAbsorber• metal• High conductivity• High absorbivity• Low emissivityCopper/Steel with covered with chromo, Tubi di circolazionealumina-nickel, TinoxInsulating systems Circulating tubes• Low Thermal Conductivity • metal with good conductivity• Resistant to high temperatureRock wool, polyurethane foam, Transparent coveragepolystyrene ... • to reduce heat losses • to maximize the efficiency of the collector Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  29. 29. Solar thermal: applicationsSelf-build approach Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  30. 30. Solar thermal: applicationsCooking System (www.home.ix.netcom.com) (www.builditsolar.com) (www.solarcooking.org) Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  31. 31. 31 Wind EnergyWith the wind impacting the blades a slow down of the velocity occurs: kinetic energy istransformed in energy over the rotor, then (possibly) in the generator converted into electricityTwo categories of aerogenerator:• horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT, Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines)• vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT Vertical Axis Wind Turbines) Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  32. 32. Distributed Generation – Small Wind MECHANICAL POWER FOR WATER PUMPING (Wind pumps) Water Head [m] Typical rotor [m3/day] supply <3 3-10 10-30 >30 diameter [m] Domestic X X 1-3 (small farm) 1.5 to 2.5 Cattle X X 20 (500 head) 1.5 to 4.5 Irrigation X X 40-100 (1 ha) 2.5 to 5.5 Smulders 1996, Harries 2002 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES Small wind Diameter [m] Power [kW] cP [$/W] MWh/year Average 4,09 3.32 2,5 5,8 Minimum 1,95 1.30 1,0 0,4 Maximum 5,8 6.00 5,5 16Self-constructed wind generator: Three wood blades 2,4m / 1,2m wind-rotor with tail vane Permanent magnet alternator (12 or 24 or 48V) Built in AC-DC converter Max power output 0,5kW Furling tail system for preventing overload Simic 2012, Piggot 2007 Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  33. 33. Hydro energyHydropower is the conversion of the energy of moving water to electricity.Especially in remote areas small scale hydro or micro-hydro power has been increasinglyused as an alternative energy source where other power sources are not viableSmall scale hydro power systems• can be installed in small rivers or streams with little or no discernible environmental effect on things such as fish migration or ‘environmental flow’• is the cheapest and most proven renewable technology for rural electrification 2 3 1. Power group (powerhouse): turbine, generator, control system4 2. Weir and intake 3. Channel 4. Forebay 5. Penstock group 5 1 Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  34. 34. Distributed Generation – MiniHydroELECTRICAL APPLIANCESPico-hydro Plant size [W] Inv. cost [US$/kW] LCOE [cUS$/kWh] 60-5.000 ~ 3.000 10-20Research areas for Developing Countries:• Improvement in electronic equipment for power quality improvement• Integration with other RE for extending life span and reduce O&M costs• New turbine concept for low-head site and pipe loss analysis• Standardization Lahimer et al. 2012 Lorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair
  35. 35. THANK YOU! lorenzo.mattarolo@polimi.itLorenzo Mattarolo – POLIMI – UNESCO Chair