Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
course System Design for Sustainabilit...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
CONTENTS
. increasing role of design (...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
intervening after processes’ damages
i...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
> responsibility for:
the “technical” ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
WHAT DO THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (IN GENER...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
cardboard seat
HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
Savonarola seat
walnut-wood, so far
50...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
=
time/function
…………………………………………………………...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
Chadwick , Stumpf
Aeron, Herman Miller...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
pen,
biodegradable material
(from corn...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
Pen,
MONTBLANC
DESIGNED WITHOUT ANY
CO...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
=
……………………………………………………………................
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
“Natural” materials
Asbestos (amianto)...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
“njatural”
materials
“natural”
materia...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
... TODAY FEW WHTIN THE DESIGN COMMUNI...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
low impact
mat./energies
~1970-…
Produ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
MATERIALS/...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN
(ECODESIG...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
“the design of the product life cycle
...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
a quantitat...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
METHODS/TOOLS
… since the ‘90 some met...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR
...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
XEROX
Xerox offers a package deal
and ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTS-SERVICES SYSTE...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
NEW METHODS/TOOLS
SusProNet, Network
o...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY:
A DE...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
A. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH
desi...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
where various forms of social inequali...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
… at the end of ‘60
Radical Design: Ga...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
… todays’ main approaches to design fo...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
… since 2002 some cases were studied s...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
SOLAR HOME KITS, Brasil
TSSFA company ...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
A PSS may act as a business opportunit...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
NEW METHODS/TOOLS
SusProNet, Network
o...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY:
A DE...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
100%
100%
0
new
research
frontier …
lo...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
100%
100%
0
new
research
frontier …
lo...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
A NEW AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY?.
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
SUSTAINABILITY REQUIRE RADICAL CHANGE,...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
A “PLURALISM OF AESTHETICS FOR
SUSTAIN...
Carlo Vezzoli
Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy
DESIGNER: A SOCIO-CULTURAL “INNOVATOR”...
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1.2 evolution of sustainability in design vezzoli 13-14

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1.2 evolution of sustainability in design vezzoli 13-14

  1. 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability subject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference framework learning resource 1.2 Evolution of sustainability within design carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
  2. 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CONTENTS . increasing role of design (for sustainability) . evolution of sustainability within design . low environmental impact materials/energies . product life cycle design/ecodesign . Product-Service System design for eco-efficiency . design for social equity and cohesion . design for sustainability: state of the art . a “pluralism of aesthetics” for sustainability
  3. 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy intervening after processes’ damages intervening on processes intervening on products and services intervening consumption patterns (SCP) APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE FOR DESIGN TIME - +
  4. 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy > responsibility for: the “technical” definition of the solutions the “attractiveness” of solutions INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN emphasis on prevention emphasis on socio-cultural dimension
  5. 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WHAT DO THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (IN GENERAL) KNOWS OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY?
  6. 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy cardboard seat HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  7. 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Savonarola seat walnut-wood, so far 500 years life span MADE WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  8. 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy = time/function ………………………………………………………………. + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  9. 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Chadwick , Stumpf Aeron, Herman Miller seat steel and plastics, 12 years warranty even in use commodatum DESIGNED TODAY WITH A RIGHT CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
  10. 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy pen, biodegradable material (from corn starch) HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  11. 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Pen, MONTBLANC DESIGNED WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy = …………………………………………………………….............. time/function + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  13. 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “Natural” materials Asbestos (amianto) is a natural material! (and one of the most cancerogenic!) HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK THEY ARE ALWAYS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  14. 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “njatural” materials “natural” materials how many persons within the design community would evalaute correctly the environmantal sustaianbility? ??HOW MANY COULD CORRECTLY DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (AND TEACH IT)?
  15. 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ... TODAY FEW WHTIN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY ARE “EQUIPPED” WITH A SOLID KNOWLEDGE-BASE AND KNOW-HOW (METHODS AND TOOLS) ON DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY … TODAY THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (AS A WHOLE) IS STILL MORE PART OF THE PROBLEM THEN PART OF THE SOLUTION! THE TRUTH IS …
  16. 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy low impact mat./energies ~1970-… Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign ~1990-… system design for eco-efficiency ~2000-… design for social equity and cohesion ~2005-… EVOLUTION OF THE (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: (in industrially mature contexts) widening the “artefact” to be designed
  17. 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS/ENERGIES . NON-TOXIC . “NATURAL” . RECYCLABLE . RENEWABLE . BIO-DEGRADABLE … since the ’70 research has started to "produce knowledges" for the selection of low impact materials/energies:
  18. 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (ECODESIGN) an extended design horizon to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “FUNCTION” design … since the beginning of the ’90 design research has started to redefine the approch to product design:
  19. 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “the design of the product life cycle stages that, while considering all requirements, aims at minimising the environmental impact of the whole of the life cycle phases in relation to the functional unit” (Vezzoli & Manzini, Springer, London, 2008) PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: DEFINITION (ECODESIGN)
  20. 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional unit ISO 14040 … in the ’90 research has developed a fundamental method for the product environmental impact assessment:
  21. 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy METHODS/TOOLS … since the ‘90 some methods and tools have been developed to support product life cycle design in 2002 has been issued the ISO/TR 14062:2002 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development UNEP-TUD (PROMISE, 1997) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS, 2009) …
  22. 22. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICENCY … since the end of the ‘90 some business cases offering as a full package a mix of product (not owned by the customer) and services shows to be capable of creating (new) value decoupling it from the materials and energy consumption has been studied
  23. 23. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy XEROX Xerox offers a package deal and installs and maintain photocopiers (not owned by the customer) and may even makes and delivers copies. The customer pays for the package. photocopiers > COPIED PAPER the innovative interaction between the company and the client, make the companies’ economic interest to provide (and design) long lasting, reusable and recyclable photocopiers.
  24. 24. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DEFINITIONS OF PRODUCTS-SERVICES SYSTEMS autors (country) year definition Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, Rommens (The Netherland) 1999 a Product Service System (or combination of products and services) is a set of marketable products and services jointly capable of fulfilling a need for a client. [...] The PSS may lead to a benefit for environmment in connection with the creation of a (new) business Mont (Sweeden) 2001 PSS is a system of products, services, networks of actors and supporting infrastructure that continuously seeks to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower impact of traditional business models UNEP- Manzini, Vezzoli (world- wide) 2002 result of an innovative strategy that shifts the center of the business design and sale of products only (physical) systems offer products and services that are jointly capable of satisfying a given application Brandsotter (Austria) 2003 PSS is a product of material and intangible services designed and combined so that both jointly are able to satisfy a specific need of a user. In addition a PSS may reach sustainability targets UE, MEPPS (AA. VV.) 2005 result of an innovation strategy focused on the design and sale of a system of products and services that are jointly capable of fulfilling a specific customer demand (Cranfield) Evans et al. (UK) 2007 PSS is an integrated offering of a product and a service that provides a value. When using a PSS offers the opportunity to decouple economic success from material consumption and thus reduce the environmental impact of economic activity UNEP-Tischner, Vezzoli (world- wide) 2009 system of products and services (and infrastructure), jointly cope with the needs and demands of customers in a more efficient and better value for both businesses and customers, compared to only offer products [...]. PSS can decouple the creation of value from the consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the environmental impact in the life cycle of traditional systems of product EU-asia link, LeNS (AA. VV.) 2014 an offer model providing an integrated mix of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular customer demand (to deliver a “unit of satisfaction”), based on innovative interactions between the stakeholders of the value production system (satisfaction system), where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks environmentally beneficial new solutions
  25. 25. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy NEW METHODS/TOOLS SusProNet, Network on sustainable PSS development [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] Design4Sustainability Step by step approach [see Tischner & Vezzoli, 2009] HiCS, Highly Customerised Solutions [see Manzini et al. 2004] MEPSS, MEthodology for Product Service System development [see van Halen et al. 2005] Product-Service System Design for Sustainability [see Vezzoli et al., 2014] METHODS Story board Offering diagram Interac tion table SDO toolkit System assessmen t Solution elements B l u portfoli o diagram TOOLS DESIGN Offering diagram SDO toolkitStory board Interac tion table … since ~2005 methods/tools have been developed (EU and UNEP researches) to support the development of eco-efficient PSS
  26. 26. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: A DEFINITION “the design of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular customer demand (deliver a “unit of satisfaction”) based on the design of innovative interactions of the stakeholders (directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system) where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks environmentally beneficial new solutions [Vezzoli, Maggioli, Milan, 2007] … since ~2005 a new design role has been defined to develop eco-efficient PSS:
  27. 27. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH design the satisfaction of a particular demand (satisfaction unit) and the mix of product and services B. “STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION” APPROACH design the interactions of the stakeholder of a particular satisfaction-system C. “SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY” APPROACH design the interactions of the stakeholder (offer model) leading them for economic-competitive reasons towards the innovation reducing the environmental impact … since ~2005 new design approaches has been defined to develop eco-efficient PSS:
  28. 28. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy where various forms of social inequality are directly addressed in the design process 4. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY
  29. 29. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … at the end of ‘60 Radical Design: Gaetano Pesce; Dalisi; 9999: contestation/denouncements critics of consumer society … at the beginning of the ’70 Maldonado: new “design hope” for a social responsibility (1972) Papanek: “design can and must become a means for young people to take part in the transformation of society” (design for a real world, 1973) DESIGN, CONSUMPTION AND ETHIC: PAST TIMES
  30. 30. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … todays’ main approaches to design for social equity and cohesion . product design for low-income contexts and basics needs (design for the BOP, etc.) . PSS (stakeholder interaction) design joining eco- efficiency with social equity and cohesion
  31. 31. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … since 2002 some cases were studied showing the coupling of socio-ethical + environmental sustainability within system innovations
  32. 32. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SOLAR HOME KITS, Brasil TSSFA company offers to Brasilian rural people a solar home kits that include the hardware to generate solar energy, the installation service and products that use the electricity, e.g. lighting and electrical outlets. Customers sign a three-year service contract (all of the tangible inputs are owned by the provider). environmentally sustainable because it uses the solar energy + socioethically sustainable because give to poor people access to useful services + it is economically sustainable because in a business for TSSFA company.
  33. 33. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A PSS may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of social-economic development in an emerging and low-income context – by jumping over or by-passing the stage of individual consumption/ownership of mass-produced goods – towards a more ‘satisfaction-based’ and low resource intensity advanced service-economy, characterized by locally-based and network- structured enterprises and initiatives, for a sustainable re-globalization process aiming to democratize access to resources, goods and services. … since 2002 a working hypothesis has been by few proposed promoting PSS (stakeholder interaction) as capable to joining eco-efficiency with social equity and cohesion [UNEP, 2002] free pdf at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/publications/details.asp?id=WEB/0081/PA
  34. 34. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy NEW METHODS/TOOLS SusProNet, Network on sustainable PSS development [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] Design4Sustainability Step by step approach [see Tischner & Vezzoli, 2009] MEPSS, MEthodology for Product Service System development [see van Halen et al. 2005] Product-Service System Design for Sustainability [see Vezzoli et al., 2014] METHODS Story board Offering diagram Interac tion table SDO toolkit B l u portfoli o diagram TOOLS DESIGN Offering diagram SDO toolkitStory board Interac tion table … since ~2005 methods/tools have been developed (EU and UNEP researches) to support the development of eco-efficient PSS
  35. 35. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: A DEFINITION “the design of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular customer demand (deliver a “unit of satisfaction”) based on the design of innovative interactions of the stakeholders (directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system) where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks both environmentally and socio- ethically beneficial new solutions … since 2005 a new design role has been defined to develop eco- efficient and socio-ethically sustainable PSS: [Vezzoli, 2007]
  36. 36. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 100% 100% 0 new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign widening the “object” to be designed … aim at SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE: STATE OF THE ART (in industrially mature contexts) CONSOLIDATION (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) (educationandpractice) DISSEMINATION
  37. 37. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 100% 100% 0 new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign widening the “object” to be designed … aim at CONSOLIDATION (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) (educationandpractice) DISSEMINATION IN “SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY” WE WILL SEE:
  38. 38. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A NEW AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY?.
  39. 39. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABILITY REQUIRE RADICAL CHANGE, I.E. SYSTEM INNOVATION TO BE DIFFUSED PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE (SYSTEM) INNOVATION FEASABLE AND “ATTRACTIVE”
  40. 40. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A “PLURALISM OF AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY” arise from the sustainability’s (new) values that take the expressions in a multiplicity of forms AN AESTHETIC FOR SUSTAINABILITY? A “ICONIC-ENVIRONMENTALIST AESTHETIC”? a mass of “green-recycled-panda” products? the aesthetic has a fundamental role!
  41. 41. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DESIGNER: A SOCIO-CULTURAL “INNOVATOR”? A DESIGNER MAY … … observe emerging/new types of demands (coherent with sustainability) and transforming them into products, services and systems … A DESIGNER MAY … … induce new quality criteria (coherent with sustainability) throughout the offer of (more) attractive products, services and systems

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