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O Sistema Digestório

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O Sistema Digestório

  1. 1. Profa. Ludimira Collares 3º Ciclo – Educação de Jovens e Adultos E. M. Francisca de Paula
  2. 2. O que é a digestão? <ul><li>É a transformação dos alimentos em moléculas menores para que possam ser absorvidos pelo nosso corpo. </li></ul>Acontece em um tubo chamado TUBO DIGESTÓRIO.
  3. 4. <ul><li>a ) Digestão mecânica : é a quebra física dos alimentos através da mastigação e dos movimentos peristálticos. </li></ul>b) Digestão química : é a transformação das moléculas maiores em menores através de reações químicas .
  4. 5. Na digestão química acontece porque temos os sucos digestórios, como: A maioria dos sucos digestórios contém ENZIMAS DIGESTÓRIAS. As ENZIMAS são proteínas que são capazes de digerir (quebrar) determinado tipo de alimento. Suco gástrico produzido no estômago Bile produzida no fígado Suco entérico produzido no intestino
  5. 6. PARTES DO SISTEMA DIGESTÓRIO
  6. 7. <ul><li>Ao tubo digestório estão ligados órgãos e glândulas que participam da digestão. </li></ul><ul><li>Ele apresenta as seguintes regiões: </li></ul><ul><li>boca </li></ul><ul><li>faringe </li></ul><ul><li>esôfago </li></ul><ul><li>estômago </li></ul><ul><li>intestino delgado </li></ul><ul><li>intestino grosso </li></ul><ul><li>ânus </li></ul>
  7. 8. A digestão começa... NA BOCA!
  8. 9. Na boca também temos três pares de GLÂNDULAS SALIVARES que produzem a SALIVA!
  9. 10. Em seguida à cavidade oral (ou bucal), temos a FARINGE. Dela, o alimento vai para o ESÔFAGO.
  10. 11. Mas, como o alimento não vai para O SISTEMA RESPIRATÓRIO? Graças à EPIGLOTE!
  11. 12. O alimento passa da faringe ao ESÔFAGO. Este empurra o alimento através de um movimento chamado...
  12. 13. peristaltismo
  13. 14. ESTÔMAGO <ul><li>O órgão muscular que liga o esôfago ao intestino delgado. </li></ul><ul><li>É como uma bolsa de parede musculosa e oca. </li></ul><ul><li>Sua função principal é a digestão de alimentos protéicos. </li></ul><ul><li>O estômago pode guardar quase um litro e meio de comida. </li></ul><ul><li>As células em sua parede interior produzem o suco gástrico. </li></ul>
  14. 15. O estômago comunica-se com o INTESTINO DELGADO através de um orifício chamado PILORO.
  15. 16. A maior parte da digestão e absorção ocorre no INTESTINO DELGADO . Ele é formado formado por três partes: <ul><li>DUODENO </li></ul><ul><li>JEJUNO </li></ul><ul><li>ÍLEO </li></ul>Também temos duas GLÂNDULAS ANEXAS ao intestino delgado: <ul><li>FÍGADO (maior glândula do corpo humano) </li></ul><ul><li>PÂNCREAS </li></ul>
  16. 17. O fígado produz a bile que é armazenada na VESÍCULA BILIAR . Depois ela é jogada no duodeno por um duto. O pâncreas produz o suco pancreático que também é jogado no duodeno através de um duto. Além disso, ele produz também hormônios, como a insulina .
  17. 18. No intestino delgado, durante cerca de três horas, os alimentos são sujeitos a movimentos intestinais que facilitam não só a sua mistura com o suco pancreático, a bile e o suco intestinal, mas também a sua deslocação ao longo daquele órgão . As células do intestino delgado produzem o SUCO INTESTINAL ou SUCO ENTÉRICO.
  18. 19. Mede cerca de 1,5 a 2 m. Tem as seguintes partes : CECO, CÓLONS, RETO E ÂNUS . Tem como função absorver a água, formar,acumular e eliminar as fezes (defecação).
  19. 20. Observe como os órgãos ficam alojados.
  20. 21. <ul><li>O tubo digestório tem cerca de nove metros. </li></ul><ul><li>A parede interna de todo o tubo digestório é revestido por uma camada especial, chamada MUCOSA. </li></ul><ul><li>O esôfago, canal que liga a faringe ao estômago, localiza-se entre os pulmões, atrás do coração, e atravessa o músculo diafragma, que separa o tórax do abdômen. O bolo alimentar leva de 5 a 10 segundos para percorrê-lo. </li></ul><ul><li>Apesar de estarem protegidas por uma densa camada de muco, as células da mucosa estomacal são continuamente lesadas e mortas pela ação do suco gástrico. Por isso, a mucosa está sempre sendo regenerada. Estima-se que nossa superfície estomacal seja totalmente reconstituída a cada três dias </li></ul><ul><li>A parede do intestino delgado é revestida internamente por numerosas vilosidades intestinais </li></ul>Algumas curiosidades
  21. 22. <ul><li>No intestino grosso bactérias produzem vitaminas do complexo B e vitamina K. </li></ul><ul><li>O fígado pesa cerca de 1,5 kg no homem adulto e, na mulher adulta, entre 1,2 e 1,4 kg; tem a cor vermelho-amarronzada. </li></ul>Mais curiosidades ALIMENTO TEMPO DE DIGESTÃO SORVETE DE FRUTAS 5 MINUTOS COPO DE LEITE 1 HORA E MEIA PRATO DE MACARRONADA 2 HORAS SALADA VERDE 2 HORAS FILÉ DE CARNE VERMELHA 2 HORAS COPO DE REFRIGERANTE 2 HORAS PORÇÃO DE PEIXE 2 HORAS FATIA DE TORTA DE MORANGO 2 HORAS MÉDIA E PÃO COM MANTEIGA 3 HORAS ARROZ, FEIJÃO E CARNE 3 HORAS HAMBÚRGUER 3 A 4 HORAS PORÇÃO DE LINGÜIÇA 6 HORAS PRATO DE FEIJOADA 6 A 8 HORAS PORÇÃO DE BACON 12 HORAS
  22. 23. Resumo dos principais nutrientes e suas enzimas digestórias TIPO DE MOLÉCULA É QUEBRADA PELAS ENZIMAS RESULTA EM AMIDO AMIL ASES GLICOSE PROTEÍNAS PROTE ASES AMINOÁCIDOS LIPÍDIOS LIP ASES GLICERÓIS E ÁCIDOS GRAXOS AÇÚCARES SACAROSE SACAR ASES GLICOSE LACTOSE LACT ASES FRUTOSE FRUT ASES MALTOSE MALT ASES
  23. 24. PRINCIPAIS SUCOS DIGESTÓRIOS Suco digestório Onde é produzido Local onde atua Quais enzimas contém SALIVA Glândulas salivares Boca Amilase salivar SUCO GÁSTRICO Estômago Estômago Pepsina (protease) SUCO ENTÉRICO Intestino delgado Intestino delgado - Sacarase - Lactase - Maltase SUCO PANCREÁTICO Pâncreas Intestino Delgado - Tripsina (protease) - Amilase pancreática - Lipase pancreática BILE Fígado Intestino Delgado Não tem
  24. 25. Ludimira Collares

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