<ul><li>repetitio est mater studiorum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repetition is the mother of learning </li></ul></ul>Superficia...
The Axial Skeleton (Part 1): Skull Spine Sternum  thorax Ribs Auditory ossicles Hyoid Bone The Appendicular Skeleton (Part...
Bones of the Skull
Bones of the Skull
Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium  vs.  Facial Bones
Bones of the Calvarium <ul><li>Frontal  (forehead) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior fossa of base of skull </li></ul></ul><u...
Bones of the Calvarium, cont’d <ul><li>Temporal (4 parts):  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous (very thin), </li></ul></ul><ul...
Bones of the Calvarium floor <ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sella turcica houses pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><u...
Facial bones <ul><li>Maxilla (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar margin for teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxillary sinu...
Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Zygomatic (2)  AKA cheek bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic process of temporal bone </li>...
Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Mandible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular condyles (TMJ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibula...
 
Sutures and Fontanels <ul><li>Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lambdoidal—betw ...
Paranasal Sinuses Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Maxillary Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal c...
Sinusitis <ul><li>-itis = inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial, viral, fungal, allergic </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling cau...
Hyoid Bone <ul><li>Inferior to the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Superior to the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Supports many cervi...
The Vertebral Column <ul><li>7 Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>12 Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>5 Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sacra...
A “Typical” Vertebra Body and intervertebral disks Spinous Process Intervertebral Foramina Articular processes/facets Supe...
Cervical Vertebrae (C 1  – C  7 ) <ul><li>C 1  = Atlas (no body) </li></ul><ul><li>C 1 -C 2  – site of rotation </li></ul>...
Thoracic Vertebrae (T 1  - T 12 ) Large Spinous Processes Articulations for ribs, both superior and inferior
Lumbar Vertebrae (L 1  - L 5 ) <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous Process </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Intervertebral Articulation
Intervertebral Disk <ul><li>Nucleus Pulposus </li></ul><ul><li>Annulus Fibrosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li>...
Disc Problems <ul><li>Most common sites for  disc problems:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C5 - C6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L4 -...
Damage to the Intervertebral Discs
 
Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (3-5 fused) <ul><li>Sacroiliac joint </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral Foramina </li></ul>
Thoracic (Rib) Cage <ul><li>Protection and muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs  – 12 pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 -...
Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d <ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicular Notc...
Cliffs of Moher, Co Clare, Ireland
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Chapter7 axialskeletonmarieb

  1. 1. <ul><li>repetitio est mater studiorum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repetition is the mother of learning </li></ul></ul>Superficial, big, important
  2. 2. The Axial Skeleton (Part 1): Skull Spine Sternum thorax Ribs Auditory ossicles Hyoid Bone The Appendicular Skeleton (Part 2): The appendages, i.e., everything else Chapter 7 Bones, Part 1
  3. 3. Bones of the Skull
  4. 4. Bones of the Skull
  5. 5. Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium vs. Facial Bones
  6. 6. Bones of the Calvarium <ul><li>Frontal (forehead) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior fossa of base of skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Crests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More prominent in male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal sinuses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sutures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen Magnum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital Condyles articulate with C 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital Crest </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bones of the Calvarium, cont’d <ul><li>Temporal (4 parts): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous (very thin), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastoid (means breast-like) process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small sinus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Houses inner ear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic meatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jugular foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Styloid Process </li></ul></ul>“ In one of these, the squamosal section of the temporal bone had been crushed, and another showed a jagged hole through the parietal bone.” The Bounty Trilogy, 1788
  8. 8. Bones of the Calvarium floor <ul><li>Sphenoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sella turcica houses pituitary gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethmoid (sieve) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cribriform plate for olfactory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crista galli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of nasal septum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrous part </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen magnum </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Facial bones <ul><li>Maxilla (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar margin for teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxillary sinus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior portion of hard palate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palatine (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior aspect of hard palate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nasal (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior Nasal conchae (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be covered in Respiratory System </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Zygomatic (2) AKA cheek bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomatic process of temporal bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lacrimal (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacrimal sac </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vomer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of nasal septum </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Facial bones, cont’d <ul><li>Mandible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular condyles (TMJ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandibular notch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronoid process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Sutures and Fontanels <ul><li>Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lambdoidal—betw occipital and parietal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(mid) Saggital --- betw parietals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronal– betw frontal and parietals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squamous – betw parietals and temporals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anterior and Posterior Fontanels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Soft spot” of Newborn </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Paranasal Sinuses Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Maxillary Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal cavity
  14. 15. Sinusitis <ul><li>-itis = inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial, viral, fungal, allergic </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling causes poor drainage and pressure differentials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinus headache </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment might include decongestants, e.g., pseudephedrine </li></ul>
  15. 16. Hyoid Bone <ul><li>Inferior to the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Superior to the larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Supports many cervical muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the larynx </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Vertebral Column <ul><li>7 Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>12 Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>5 Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>5 Sacral (fused) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Coccygeal (usually) </li></ul><ul><li>Curvatures: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral </li></ul>
  17. 18. A “Typical” Vertebra Body and intervertebral disks Spinous Process Intervertebral Foramina Articular processes/facets Superior Inferior Vertebral (neural) Arch Pedicles and Laminae Vertebral Canal/foramen
  18. 19. Cervical Vertebrae (C 1 – C 7 ) <ul><li>C 1 = Atlas (no body) </li></ul><ul><li>C 1 -C 2 – site of rotation </li></ul><ul><li>C 2 = Axis (dens) </li></ul><ul><li>C 3 - C 6 are similar </li></ul><ul><li>Note the transverse foramina in each cervical vertebra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral Artery/Vein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C 7 has the vertebra prominens </li></ul>C 1
  19. 20. Thoracic Vertebrae (T 1 - T 12 ) Large Spinous Processes Articulations for ribs, both superior and inferior
  20. 21. Lumbar Vertebrae (L 1 - L 5 ) <ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Spinous Process </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina </li></ul><ul><li>Articular Facets </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Process </li></ul><ul><li>Pedicle </li></ul>
  21. 22. Intervertebral Articulation
  22. 23. Intervertebral Disk <ul><li>Nucleus Pulposus </li></ul><ul><li>Annulus Fibrosus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul>See Fig. 8-9
  23. 24. Disc Problems <ul><li>Most common sites for disc problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C5 - C6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L4 - L5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L5 - S1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laminectomy ( surgical removal vertebral arch by shaving laminae to access disc) </li></ul>Fig 7.14
  24. 25. Damage to the Intervertebral Discs
  25. 27. Sacrum (5 fused) Coccyx (3-5 fused) <ul><li>Sacroiliac joint </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral Foramina </li></ul>
  26. 28. Thoracic (Rib) Cage <ul><li>Protection and muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs – 12 pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - 7 are “true” ribs, with attachment to the sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 - 12 attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costal Cartilages </li></ul>
  27. 29. Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d <ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manubrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicular Notch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xiphoid </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Cliffs of Moher, Co Clare, Ireland

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