Chapter6 bonesmarieb

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Chapter6 bonesmarieb

  1. 1. Chapter 6-Bones and Skeletal Tissues <ul><li>Histology of cartilage and bone </li></ul><ul><li>Function of the skeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Bone terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Bone development and growth </li></ul>
  2. 3. The skeletal system is multifunctional <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of minerals and lipid </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cell proliferation (red marrow) </li></ul><ul><li>Protection (heart, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage, Movement </li></ul>
  3. 4. Cartilage: Connective tissue <ul><li>Chondroblasts lay down the matrix, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>become chondrocytes when surrounded by EC matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chondrocytes do not mitose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor healing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On aging, cartilage becomes calcified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not bone </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Cartilage, cont’d <ul><li>Elastic: More flexible, e.g., ear </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially articular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resists compression—IV Disk, menisci </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Types (shapes) of Bones <ul><li>Long </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sutural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebra </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Typical (Long) Bone Structure Page 129
  7. 8. Bone markings Table 6.1 <ul><li>Projection and Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberosity, tubercle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trochanter (only one!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines and spines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epicondyles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surfaces for Joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head, facet, condyle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depressions and holes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mostly a lab exercise </li></ul>
  8. 9. Types of Osseous Tissue <ul><li>Compact Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense, found in the walls, or cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spongy or Cancellous Bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of struts and thin plates (trabeculae) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red and Yellow </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. 1. Compact Bone <ul><li>Osteon = functional unit of bone </li></ul><ul><li>The mineral matrix is hydroxyapatite </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts lay down the matrix in layers (lamellae) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become osteocytes when surrounded by EC matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacunae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts break down bone </li></ul>
  10. 11. 2. Spongy Bone <ul><li>No osteons </li></ul><ul><li>Lacy network of struts called trabeculae reinforce the bone </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by endosteum </li></ul>
  11. 12. 3. Marrow <ul><li>Red Marrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Precursors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yellow Marrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly fat </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Internal Organization of a Typical Bone Osteon = Functional unit of bone p 133
  13. 14. Bone Development <ul><li>Osteoblasts produce hydroxyapatite </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts break down the hydroxyapatite </li></ul><ul><li>Intramembranous Ossification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plates of Bone e.g. skull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endochondral Ossification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Bones </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Intramembranous Ossification
  15. 16. Endochondral Ossification
  16. 17. Endochondral Ossification
  17. 18. Bone Circulation
  18. 19. Bone Remodeling <ul><li>Bones are metabolically very active </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoid becomes hydroxyapatite </li></ul><ul><li>Source for calcium </li></ul>
  19. 20. Fractures <ul><li>Young vs. old patients </li></ul><ul><li>Simple vs. open (compound) fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Healing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction and stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of hematoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Callus— </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fibrocartilagenous and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remodeling—months later </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Osteoporosis (p 141) <ul><li>Loss of bone mass weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Both compact and spongy bone </li></ul><ul><li>Post-menopausal women, some men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen replacement?? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Osteoporosis (p 141)

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