<ul><li>repetitio est mater studiorum </li></ul><ul><li>repetition is the mother of learning </li></ul>
<ul><li>Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different muscle tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the organiza...
Types of Muscle Tissue <ul><li>One of the 4 primary tissue types </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal = Striated =  Voluntary </li><...
Function of Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Skeletal movement  </li></ul><ul><li>Posture and body position </li></ul><ul><li>Supp...
Gross to Microscopic Anatomy Each skeletal muscle cell (fiber) is wrapped by 3 layers of connective tissue.
Epi-, Peri-, and Endomysium <ul><li>Are interwoven  -  Continuous with tendon, and eventually the periosteum </li></ul><ul...
Nerve   and Blood Supply <ul><li>Skeletal muscles are rich in nerves and  </li></ul><ul><li>blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><...
Coiled Capillaries
Origin and Insertion <ul><li>Origin:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The part that stays still </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually p...
Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers <ul><li>Some vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle cell = fiber or myofiber...
Microanatomy Myofiber (= cell)  Myofibrils  Myofilaments Fig. 10.4
Myofiber (cell)    Myofibrils   Myofilaments Actin & Myosin Myofilaments
Sarcomere   (= thick + thin filaments) <ul><li>Thick and Thin Filaments are organized in repeating functional units </li><...
Sarcomere Structure  Z - line A- band = dArk band I - band = lIght band
Thin Filament: Actin
Thick Filament: Myosin
Motor Unit <ul><li>= All muscle fibers that are controlled by a single motor neuron (axon) </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the...
Neuromuscular Junction LM  x230
Muscle Control <ul><li>Muscle tone = Resting tension of skeletal muscles  (continuous contraction of some motor units to m...
Muscle Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy <ul><li>Hypertrophy   due to anaerobic exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to increased muscle...
Three Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers  (fast, slow, intermediate) <ul><li>Slow (or Red) OxidativeFibers Type I </li></ul><...
1.  Slow (or Red) Oxidative Fibers Type I <ul><li>Slow but continuous contraction for extended periods </li></ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>Fast contraction after nervous stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Large diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large glycogen r...
3.  Fast Oxidative Fibers Type IIa <ul><li>Have attributes in between fast and slow types  </li></ul>
Organization (shape) of Skeletal Muscle Fibers <ul><li>Effect of individual muscle contraction   determined by: </li></ul>...
Parallel Muscles <ul><li>Extensor vs. flexor </li></ul><ul><li>Origin vs. Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle shaped with ...
Convergent muscles <ul><li>Broad origin, pointed insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of pull can be varied: versatility!...
Pennate Muscles: Unipennate <ul><li>One or more tendons  run though muscle body </li></ul><ul><li>Fascicles in oblique ang...
Pennate Muscles:  Bipennate &    Multipennate Example Example
Circular Muscles  <ul><li>= Sphincters </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric fibers adjust opening </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: orbi...
Muscle Terminology <ul><li>Flexor   Extensor </li></ul><ul><li>Origin   Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Agonist Antagonist </l...
Naming of Skeletal Muscles  (chapt 11, p 271) <ul><li>Orientation of fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Size & shape  </li></ul><ul>...
Types of Actions <ul><li>flexion, extension </li></ul><ul><li>adduction, abduction </li></ul><ul><li>elevation, depression...
Grouping of Muscles according to Primary Action <ul><li>Agonist = Prime Mover </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist (action opposes...
Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Form the Myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Striated, involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Single cells </li></u...
Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Nonstriated, involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Internal organs (mostly) </li></ul><ul><li>Single Cells c...
 
Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fig 9-1 Perimysium contains? Endomysium contains?
Neuromuscular Junction
Arrangement of Motor Units within a Skeletal Muscle Fig 9-12
Slow vs. Fast Fibers
Rectus femoris, Deltoid
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter10 muscletissuemarieb

2,018 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,018
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
75
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter10 muscletissuemarieb

  1. 1. <ul><li>repetitio est mater studiorum </li></ul><ul><li>repetition is the mother of learning </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different muscle tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the organization of skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the micro-anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the fascicle arrangement in different types of muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Review general muscle terminology </li></ul>Ch 10: Skeletal Muscle Tissue (Myology) main objectives:
  3. 3. Types of Muscle Tissue <ul><li>One of the 4 primary tissue types </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal = Striated = Voluntary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 % of weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac (involuntary) </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth (involuntary, nonstriated </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of many tissue types. </li></ul><ul><li>> 700 skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Word roots: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sarco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myo </li></ul></ul>Musculus = little mouse
  4. 4. Function of Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Skeletal movement </li></ul><ul><li>Posture and body position </li></ul><ul><li>Support of soft tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Guarding of entrances & exits </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gross to Microscopic Anatomy Each skeletal muscle cell (fiber) is wrapped by 3 layers of connective tissue.
  6. 6. Epi-, Peri-, and Endomysium <ul><li>Are interwoven - Continuous with tendon, and eventually the periosteum </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aponeurosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligament </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innervation </li></ul></ul>Epimysium = On top of the muscle Perimysium = Around a bundle of myofibers Endomysium = Surrounds each myofiber
  7. 7. Nerve and Blood Supply <ul><li>Skeletal muscles are rich in nerves and </li></ul><ul><li>blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical communication at neuromuscular junction </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic terminal of axon meets motor end plate of muscle cell </li></ul><ul><li>Coiled capillaries are able to adapt to changes in length of muscle fiber </li></ul>
  8. 8. Coiled Capillaries
  9. 9. Origin and Insertion <ul><li>Origin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The part that stays still </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually proximal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insertion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The part that moves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually distal </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers <ul><li>Some vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle cell = fiber or myofiber </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcolemma </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Myofibril </li></ul><ul><li>Myofilaments </li></ul><ul><li>T-tubules </li></ul>Multiple nuclei on periphery
  11. 11. Microanatomy Myofiber (= cell) Myofibrils Myofilaments Fig. 10.4
  12. 12. Myofiber (cell) Myofibrils Myofilaments Actin & Myosin Myofilaments
  13. 13. Sarcomere (= thick + thin filaments) <ul><li>Thick and Thin Filaments are organized in repeating functional units </li></ul><ul><li>Each myofibril has linear arrangement of up to 10,000 sarcomeres </li></ul><ul><li>Banded appearance ( striation ) due to arrangement of thick and thin filaments </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of thick and thin filaments responsible for skeletal muscle fiber contraction </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sarcomere Structure Z - line A- band = dArk band I - band = lIght band
  15. 15. Thin Filament: Actin
  16. 16. Thick Filament: Myosin
  17. 17. Motor Unit <ul><li>= All muscle fibers that are controlled by a single motor neuron (axon) </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the ratio of muscle fibers to neurons, the more precise the movement can be. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio is from 1:1 to 1:2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter at the motor end plate </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of a motor unit is “all or none.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Neuromuscular Junction LM x230
  19. 19. Muscle Control <ul><li>Muscle tone = Resting tension of skeletal muscles (continuous contraction of some motor units to maintain some muscle tension) </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment or Multiple motor unit summation for greater force </li></ul><ul><li>Some directional control depending on which motor units are stimulated </li></ul>
  20. 20. Muscle Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy <ul><li>Hypertrophy due to anaerobic exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to increased muscle size - how? </li></ul><ul><li>Atrophy if supply of myofilaments exceeds demand. Muscle fibers become smaller and weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventual death of muscle fibers is irreversible! Importance of Physical Therapy </li></ul>
  21. 21. Three Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers (fast, slow, intermediate) <ul><li>Slow (or Red) OxidativeFibers Type I </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Glycolytic Fibers Type Iix </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Oxidative Fibers Type IIa </li></ul>Most skeletal muscles contain mixture of fiber types. Proportion of fast to slow depends on training and development One motor unit only contains one fiber type
  22. 22. 1. Slow (or Red) Oxidative Fibers Type I <ul><li>Slow but continuous contraction for extended periods </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller diameter (~ half) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contain myoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not fatigue as fast due to aerobic production of ATP </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Fast contraction after nervous stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Large diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large glycogen reserve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>densely packed myofibrils </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatigue fast due to mainly anaerobic respiration </li></ul>2. Fast Glycolytic Fibers Type IIx
  24. 24. 3. Fast Oxidative Fibers Type IIa <ul><li>Have attributes in between fast and slow types </li></ul>
  25. 25. Organization (shape) of Skeletal Muscle Fibers <ul><li>Effect of individual muscle contraction determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arrangement of muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>method of attachment to skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bundles of muscle fibers =fascicle </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fibers within 1 fascicle are parallel </li></ul>
  26. 26. Parallel Muscles <ul><li>Extensor vs. flexor </li></ul><ul><li>Origin vs. Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle shaped with cord-like tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Some flat bands with broad attachments on each end </li></ul>
  27. 27. Convergent muscles <ul><li>Broad origin, pointed insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of pull can be varied: versatility!! </li></ul><ul><li>Example = deltoid </li></ul>
  28. 28. Pennate Muscles: Unipennate <ul><li>One or more tendons run though muscle body </li></ul><ul><li>Fascicles in oblique angle to tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Can generate more tension </li></ul><ul><li>Example = biceps brachii </li></ul>
  29. 29. Pennate Muscles: Bipennate & Multipennate Example Example
  30. 30. Circular Muscles <ul><li>= Sphincters </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric fibers adjust opening </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: orbicularis oculi and oris </li></ul>
  31. 31. Muscle Terminology <ul><li>Flexor Extensor </li></ul><ul><li>Origin Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Agonist Antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Synergist </li></ul><ul><li>Possible: multiple origins </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Agonist = Prime Mover </li></ul>
  32. 32. Naming of Skeletal Muscles (chapt 11, p 271) <ul><li>Orientation of fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Size & shape </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Origin & / or insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Specific features </li></ul><ul><li>Use muscle name to help identify its location, appearance and function! </li></ul>
  33. 33. Types of Actions <ul><li>flexion, extension </li></ul><ul><li>adduction, abduction </li></ul><ul><li>elevation, depression </li></ul><ul><li>pronation, supination </li></ul><ul><li>etc., etc. . . . . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Grouping of Muscles according to Primary Action <ul><li>Agonist = Prime Mover </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist (action opposes agonist) </li></ul><ul><li>Synergists = Assistants of prime mover </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Form the Myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Striated, involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Single cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branched extensively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joined with Intercalated Disks (provide communication with gap junctions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar filament structure to Skeletal M. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclei in the middle of the cells </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Nonstriated, involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Internal organs (mostly) </li></ul><ul><li>Single Cells called fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Often in opposing layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gut, bladder </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fig 9-1 Perimysium contains? Endomysium contains?
  38. 39. Neuromuscular Junction
  39. 40. Arrangement of Motor Units within a Skeletal Muscle Fig 9-12
  40. 41. Slow vs. Fast Fibers
  41. 42. Rectus femoris, Deltoid

×