Where business partners exchange business documents on a logical level, this is physically achievable by means of mail-letters, fax and so on. All those means in common: the technical structure of the documents get lost, and the recipient has to re-enter the information in his system. With EDI the technical structure of the document is retained. This enables the recipient to automatically process the document by his business software. Because of both partners are independent, they will make independent decisions on their IT infrastructure and their business software. Hence EDI standards are required, to map from the application data structure of the sender into the EDI standard, and from the EDI standard into the application data structure of the recipient. By this means the partners stay independent. IDoc is the data structure of SAP application at the interface. This gives a unified interface to any EDI subsystem regardless of the SAP module, which creates or receives the messages. By linking SAP systems directly, IDoc can be transmitted without a mapping into EDI standards. This is the ALE (Application Link Enabling) approach. Partners are, in a technical sense, linked tighter, means loose some of their independency of their IT infrastructure.
Administration Management of partner profiles & addresses. Management of mappings. Management of cross reference tables. Partner and document dependent processing. Monitoring Status control and report. Archiving of documents according to legal requirements. Run time Mapping compliant with EDI standards. Interchange handling and envolping of messages. EDI standard specific functionlity, e.g. Functional & Interchange Acknowledgements. Communication gateway functions.
The key concepts of IDoc (i.e. Intermediate Document ) are: communication is asynchronous and related to one document, i.e. transaction. Following these concepts IDoc facilitates distributed processes rather simply invoking functions. IDoc is the SAP standard interface to link application systems via messaging. Whereas one system is asumed to be SAP system R/3, the other system could be EDI subsystem, system R/3, system R/2 or any third-party application software. IDoc is available for system R/3 from release 2.1A on. IDoc is available for system R/2 from release 5.0F on.
The partner profile links system 1 with system 2, e.g. the SAP business application with an EDI subsystem. The process code points to a business process. The business process controls the creation of an IDoc in outbound, or the processing of an IDoc to post a business document in inbound. The port takes all the technical properties to address system 2.
The following selection of logical messages is available in SAP R/3 for the above scenario: REQOTE 840 / REQOTE since 3.0 QUOTES 843 / QUOTES since 4.5 (outbound only) PRICAT 832 / PRICAT since 4.5 (outbound; inbound 4.6C) ORDERS 850, 875 / ORDERS since 3.0 ORDCHG 860, 876 / ORDCHG since 3.0 ORDRSP 855, 865 / ORDRSP since 3.0 DESADV 856 / DESADV since 3.0 STPPOD 861 / RECADV since 4.6 (inbound only) INVOIC 810, 880 / INVOIC since 3.0 EXPINV ___ / CUSDEC since 3.0 (outbound only) A.E.S. - Automated Export System IMPINV ___ / CUSDEC since 4.0 (outbound only) TXTRAW 864 / GENRAL since 3.1 (inbound only) REMADV 820 / REMADV since 3.0 PAYEXT 820 / PAYEXT, PAYORD since 3.0 CREADV 812 / CREADV, CREEXT since 3.0 DEBADV 812 / DEBADV, DEBEXT since 3.0 FINSTA ___ / FINSTA since 4.0 (inbound only) LOCKBX 823 / ______ since 4.0 (inbound only)
What is Electronic Document Interchange ?Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is aboutdoing business and carrying out transactionswith your trading partners electronically.
What is Electronic Document Interchange ?EDI covers most things that are traditionallydone using paper-based communication, forexample placing orders with suppliers andcarrying out financial transactions.
Benefits Of EDI Reduced Data Entry Errors Reduced Processing Cycle Time. Availability of Data in Electronic form. Reduced Paper work. Reduced Cost. Standard means of communication Better business process Competitive Advantage.
History of EDIEDI technologies have evolved as a naturaldata carrier replacing the paper document.It is not a new concept or a new practice. EDIhas existed for over two decades in Europeand North America.
History of EDIEarly electronic interchanges used proprietary formatsagreed upon between two trading partners.This required a new program each time a new partnerwas added to the existing system.In the 1960’s, some industry groups began a cooperativeeffort to develop industry EDI standards for purchasing,transportation, and financial applications.Many of these standards supported only intra-industrytrading, which led to a large number of EDI formats.
History of EDIIn 1979, the Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12was formed to develop a generic EDI standard.In 1993, Version 3, Release 4 contained 192 standards.There are over 100 additional standards in development.In the U.S., the most commonly used standard is ANSIX12, coordinated by the American National StandardsInstitute (ANSI).While in Europe, it is the Electronic Data Interchange forAdministration, Commerce, and Transportation(EDIFACT) standard.
History of EDIRecognizing the value of EDI as a key business enablerearly on, SAP has provided support for EDI since R/3Release 2.2x and continues to enhance its solution.
Sample Scenario Document IDoc SAP System R/3 NON SAP System IDoc IDoc Transaction EDI Subsystem Message EDI Subsystem
EDI Subsystem Responsibilities EDI subsystem partner profile translator archive addresses message handling monitor mappings communicationAdministration Run time Management of partner profiles & addresses. Mapping compliant with EDI standards. Management of mappings. Interchange handling and envolping of Management of cross reference tables. messages. Partner and document dependent processing. EDI standard specific functionlity, e.g.Monitoring Functional & Interchange Acknowledgements. Status control and report. Archiving of documents according to legal Communication gateway functions. requirements.
IDoc Concept Asynchronous Document-related System 1 System 2 SAP Document Document IDoc Transaction Message R/3 System EDI subsystem R/3 System R/2 System 3rd party software
Process Code, Port and Partner Profile SAP Application Process Partner Port Code Profile System 2 e.g. EDI subsystem
Typical Business Documents exchanged by business partners Customer Vendor Request For Quotation Quotation Purchasing Purchase Order Order Mgmt Sales Order Shipping Notice Shipping Receiving E Billing INVOIC Accounts Accounts Account/ Payment InfoRemittance Advice / Payment Data / Account Info Customer EFT Bank Vendor