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chemical capturing anisha.pptx

  1. ZOM -801 GD/ SEMINAR- CHEMICAL CAPTURING Submitted by- Anisha chahar 2204632 Submitted to – Dr . Shruti sharma
  2. Capture Method Introduction The capture and handling of wild animals plays a prominent role in wildlife conservation and management. On a regular basis, zoo veterinarian has to deal with animal handling for various purposes.  For routine health check-up(veterinary care, surgical intervention, hormonal implantation, or sterilization).  For research purposes (assisted reproductive techniques, blood collection, radio collaring).  For conservation and management (capture of problematic animals, translocation , reintroduction).
  3. Types of capture methods Physical restraint. Chemical immobilization.
  4. Physical restraint Devices of physical restraint are-  Traps- these are routinely used to capture mass population of wild population of wild animals that are laid at places where the animals frequently visit such as water pools.  Nets- variety of nets such as mist net, drive net or bait net can be used to capture aggressive and injured animals.  Snares- can also be used to capture problematic animal but the snares need to be monitored for long hours so that as soon as animal is trapped in snares.
  5. Limitation of physical restraint  It need long term planning.  It is very expensive to perform such as hiring helicopter and other vehicle for driving/chasing animals.  Individual subject animal from the group cannot be tracked and anaesthetized.  It lead to serious stress in the animal, may be prove fatal for animals.
  6. Chemical immobilization  Definition Chemical restraint is a form of animal restraint technique in which drug and chemical are used to restrict the movement (walking , running, aggression)of an animal and sometimes just to sedate or calm down the animal .  In this method anaesthetic drugs are used to immobilize an animal for the capturing.  Immobilizers – these are the drugs which are used to capture and restraint the animal.  State of chemical restraint may vary from immobilization, tranquilizers(calmness), to anaesthesia (complete loss of consciousness).
  7. Advantages  It allow the examining and treating of sick and injured animals.  It enables restraint of selected aggressive animals within a group of animals.  Equipment required for chemical restraint are easy to transport from one place to another.  Equipment that are used for the technique are cheap as compared to physical restraint technique.
  8. Disadvantages Occasional failure of equipment at the site . Undesirable and long term effect of drugs on the animals. Improper darting due to untrained operator mistake. This technique cannot be used for the mass population.
  9. Purpose For translocation of animals. For the morphological studies. For the disease treatment. For treating injured animals.
  10. Factors affecting the anaesthesia response  Age -young and much older animal are more sensitive to affect of drug in comparison to an adult animal. Young animals require more and older animals usually require less doses.  Size and body weight – the small size animal with higher metabolic rate need higher doses.  Sex – males require higher doses than the females.  Species – there are species-specificity and variation in drug response. Choice of drug, doses, and animal response vary between species.  Physical condition- sick and malnourished or debilitated animal require lower dose than a healthy, well fed animal
  11. Contin…………  Pregnancy – pregnant animal are more susceptible to anaesthesia due to higher metabolic rate. However animals in late pregnancy require more doses. The pregnant ungulates has been sedate for the artificial insemination and for ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis.  Season – time of year may have a profound effect on response to specific drug such as Succinylcholine.
  12. Anaesthetic drugs Characteristics of an ideal drug-  Readily available and economical.  Readily soluble in water, stable, in solution with long self life.  High therapeutic drug.  Fast acting with smooth onset of induction.  Minimum excitement.  Non-irritating upon administration.  Safe to use in pregnant animals.  Safe for human in case of accidental exposure.  Short induction period.  Effect should be reversible.
  13. Neuromuscular blocking drugs  These drugs act at the neuromuscular junction and paralysis muscle from functioning.  There are three classes of neuromuscular blocking drug- - Competitive - Ganglionic  Due to narrow safety margin and risk of respiratory failure due to paralysis of diaphragmatic muscles, these drugs are not suitable for animals.  Examples –Succinylcholine , Nicotine sulphate. -depolarizing
  14. Central nervous system depressants  These drugs predominantly affect on the CNS .  Effect ranges from calmness, depression, loss of pain to loss of conciousness .  In this category of drugs, some drugs(diazepam) which act as tranquilizer at a lower dose may work as anaesthetic, although it is not recommended.  Examples- Diazepam
  15. Tranquilizers  Produce calmness, loss of aggression, and loss of alertness.  Do not get immobilized fully and can be aroused by slight disturbance.  Hence used in combination to increase the effect of other drug.  Example-Promazine -acetylpromazine -Haloperidol -Droperidol
  16. Sedatives  These drugs have potency to work themselves  Can be used in combination with other drugs or can be used alone.  It result in hypnotic like state.  Drug far better with respect to smooth induction, good muscle relaxation and smooth recovery.  Examples-Xylazine -diazepam.
  17. Various routes of drug administratio Oral drugs can be mixed with water and food. Hand held syringes regular syringe, jab stick. Remotely projected syringes or darts blow pipes, blow gun, gun, pistol.
  18. Continue……..  Jab stick is a modified syringes that allows operator keep away from animal while injecting drug . The stick will be attached to with a syringe and atta needle, drug will be administerd using pressure.  Projectile dart syringe dart has three components n with sleeve, barrel of syringe, rear side stabilizer.  Blow pipes it is commonest dart projector made of P or aluminium for darting. The length of blow pipe is generally 1-2 metre.  Pistol pressure to fire the dart is built up by using ei a foot pump or a carbon di oxide cartridge. It effecti range varies from 20 to 25.
  19. Darting site  The preferred darting site are shoulder and hindquarter.  The muscles of the shoulder, biceps, triceps, are among the best places for remote injection.  Better to avoid upper part of shoulder because dart needle can become embedded in cartilage or scapula.  In skinny and emaciated animals, darts may strike spine of scapula and result in fracture, hemorrhage or dart blockage.  In such animals hindquarters are the most suitable site for darting.  For large herbivores such as the elephants hump muscles will be most suitable place.
  20. Drug doses Information required prior calculating drug dosage are- • Animal weight. • Concentration of drug. • Recommended dose.
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