Objective• In this case study develop maps for analyzingoutbreaks of food borne illness inPittsburgh, PA. I will also analyze variousoutbreak scenarios and develop a strategy foridentifying outbreak sources, identifying highrisk zones for infection, and assessingpopulations that are vulnerable to food borneillness outbreaks, in order to prevent thespread of outbreak and effectively treataffected populations.
Approach• Phase 1: build a basemap containing the geocoded locations offoodsources within Pittsburgh, PA, including bakeries, restaurants, grocerystores, and convenience stores.• Phase 2: Geocode the home addresses and work addresses of individualsinfected with Hepatitis A and compare these locations to the geocodedfood source layer, in order to identify potential sources of the outbreak.• Phase 3: Use the known origin of the Hepatitis A outbreak to conduct abuffer analysis to identify high buildings located in close proximity to theorigin of the outbreak and that may have been affected.• Phase 4: Assess populations that are vulnerable to food supplies that havebeen compromised by a natural disaster. I will identify the locations withthe highest concentrations of populations most vulnerable to food borneillness, in order for the health department to prioritize these locations andensure the safety of the food supply.
Limitations• Lack of familiarity with the area.– Inability to rematch all geocoded food sources inbasemap. If this were an actual outbreak, it wouldbe necessary to identify all possible origin locationof the food borne illness.
Phase 1-BasemapFood Source LocationsPittsburgh, PennsylvaniaCity of Pittsburgh, 2011Allegheny County Health Department, 2005
Phase 2-Tracing Outbreak SourcesAnalysis of Possible Outbreak Sources within 500 feet of Outbreak Work LocationsCentral Business District Neighborhood, Pittsburgh
Phase 2-Tracing Outbreak SourcesAnalysis of Outbreak SourcesCentral Business District Neighborhood, Pittsburgh• Food Sources Identified as Possible Origin of Outbreak:– Restaurants:• Beanies, Simply Subs, Pasta Al Dente, PNC Bank 15th Floor Cafeteria, PNC Bank 30thFloor Cafeteria, Little China Warner Center, Gr & Deli, Warner Café, Steel CitySteak, The Kennedy Deli, Valerie’s, Generic Deli, AHN Chinese Express, GrilledChicken King & Steak, Billy’s, Dayoub’s Restaurant, A La Carte, The Different TwistPretzel, Mark Pi Express, Epheus, Madonna’s, Cazamil, K & FLuncheonette, Mango’s Mediterranean Café, Hot Dogma, Asiago Express– Bakeries:• Jenny Lee Bakery #14– Retail Convenience Stores:• 7 Eleven # 167• 7 Eleven # 170
Phase 3-Identify Affected Office BuildingsOffice Buildings within ¼ Mile of Outbreak OriginHigh Risk of Exposure to Food Borne DiseaseCentral Business District, PittsburghCity of Pittsburgh, 2011Allegheny County Health Department, 2005
Phase 4-Assess Vulnerable PopulationAnalysis of Food Sources Effected by Flooding and Most VulnerablePopulationsPittsburgh, PennsylvaniaCity of Pittsburgh, 2011Allegheny County Health Department, 2005
Phase 4-Assess Vulnerable PopulationAnalysis of Food Sources Effected by Flooding and Most VulnerablePopulationsPittsburgh, Pennsylvania• Population Statistics:– 0-.5 Mile Buffer• Total Population: 56,623• Total Population Under 5 years old: 2,520• Population 65 years old and over: 9,382– .51-1 Mile Buffer• Total Population: 74,364• Total Population Under 5 years old: 4,329• Population 65 years old and over: 12,989
Future Work• Phase 1: Rematch all addresses in order to ensure that all possibleorigins of the outbreak are identified.• Phase 2: Knowledge of restaurants and common lunch locationswould be useful in identifying possible outbreak origins.• Phase 3: A multiple ring buffer analysis would be useful inidentifying buildings with workers who are most likely to walk toGeneric Deli. It would also be useful to ad a layer with otherrestaurants near high risk buildings, since people with a short lunchbreak may choose the closest options to their office for lunch; thiswould be useful in prioritizing what buildings to focus on first.• Phase 4: It would be useful to analyze the total populationsurrounding each individual food source, rather than in each bufferring, in order to determine which locations have the highestpotential traffic.