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MS: IN A NUTSHELL The what and the why This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Deriv...
MS IS AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE <ul><li>Instead of fighting off foreign objects (like viruses) your body’s immune system gets ...
THE TARGET OF THIS ATTACK IS THE PROTECTIVE COATING, THE MYELIN, OF THE NERVE CELLS IN YOUR BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD http://t...
THIS ATTACK LEAVES BEHIND SCARS, CALLED SCLEROSES.  When the myelin is damaged, signals from your brain get interrupted, c...
WHEN THE MYELIN IS DAMAGED, SIGNALS FROM YOUR BRAIN GET INTERRUPTED, CAUSING THE SYMPTOMS. <ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><...
FOUR TYPES OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
EXCEPT IN VERY RARE CASES, MS IS NOT FATAL AND USUALLY DOES NOT SHORTEN LIFE SPAN
WHAT CAUSES MS? GENETICS ENVIRONMENT INFECTIOUS BEHAVIOR
GENETICS <ul><li>Twice as common in women </li></ul><ul><li>Most common in Caucasians of N. European ancestry </li></ul><u...
INFECTIOUS <ul><li>Epstein-Barr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If results in mononucleosis, 2-3 times increased risk factor </li></...
ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twin studies </li></u...
BEHAVIOR <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk factor for developing MS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with in...
THERE IS NO CURE FOR MS <ul><li>Currently several disease-modifying treatments exist to reduce the number of relapses </li...
ON THE HORIZON <ul><li>Several new oral therapies are in trials </li></ul><ul><li>Continued work to determine remaining ge...
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MS: In a Nutshell

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An overview of Multiple Sclerosis: the disease mechanism, the causes, the treatments

Published in: Health & Medicine
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MS: In a Nutshell

  1. 1. MS: IN A NUTSHELL The what and the why This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  2. 2. MS IS AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE <ul><li>Instead of fighting off foreign objects (like viruses) your body’s immune system gets confused and attacks your own cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE TARGET OF THIS ATTACK IS THE PROTECTIVE COATING, THE MYELIN, OF THE NERVE CELLS IN YOUR BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_bbt
  4. 4. THIS ATTACK LEAVES BEHIND SCARS, CALLED SCLEROSES. When the myelin is damaged, signals from your brain get interrupted, causing the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis = many scars
  5. 5. WHEN THE MYELIN IS DAMAGED, SIGNALS FROM YOUR BRAIN GET INTERRUPTED, CAUSING THE SYMPTOMS. <ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness </li></ul><ul><li>Balance, walking problems </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination problems </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder and bowel dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Vision problems </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness and vertigo </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Tremor </li></ul><ul><li>Speech disorders </li></ul>Symptoms vary over time and from person to person Source: www.nationalmssociety.org
  6. 6. FOUR TYPES OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
  7. 7. EXCEPT IN VERY RARE CASES, MS IS NOT FATAL AND USUALLY DOES NOT SHORTEN LIFE SPAN
  8. 8. WHAT CAUSES MS? GENETICS ENVIRONMENT INFECTIOUS BEHAVIOR
  9. 9. GENETICS <ul><li>Twice as common in women </li></ul><ul><li>Most common in Caucasians of N. European ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk in general population = 1/750 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk if close relative is affected = 1/40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk if identical twin is affected = 1/25 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists have found, to-date, 50% of the factors responsible for the genetic susceptibility to MS </li></ul>Sources: National MS Society; Gregory, G., Schmidt, S., Seth, P. et al. (2007). Interleukin 7 receptor a chain (IL7R) shows allelic and functional association with multiple sclerosis. Nature Genetics, (39) 9, 1083-1091.
  10. 10. INFECTIOUS <ul><li>Epstein-Barr </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If results in mononucleosis, 2-3 times increased risk factor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human Herpes Virus 6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated more (and at higher levels) in people with MS versus other autoimmune disorders </li></ul></ul>Sources: Ascherio, A. & Munger, K. (2008) Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: from risk factors to prevention. Seminars in Neurology, 28 (1), 17-28. ; Virtanen, J.O., Farkkila, M., Multanen, J. et al. (2007). Evidence for human herpesvirus 6 variant A antibodies in multiple sclerosis: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Journal of NeuroVirology, 13, 347-352.
  11. 11. ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twin studies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced risk in Norway coastal villages with higher fish consumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Latitude Gradient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk reduced in populations closer to equator </li></ul></ul>Sources: Islam, T., Gauderman, W.J., Cozen, W. & Mack, T.M. (2007). Childhood sun exposure influences risk of multiple sclerosis in monozygotic twins. Neurology, 69, 381-388; Ascherio & Munger, 2008
  12. 12. BEHAVIOR <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk factor for developing MS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with increased risk of transition from relapsing-remitting MS to secondary-progressive MS </li></ul></ul>Sources: Ascherio & Munger, 2008
  13. 13. THERE IS NO CURE FOR MS <ul><li>Currently several disease-modifying treatments exist to reduce the number of relapses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All injection or intravenous-based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation therapy can help to promote or maintain function </li></ul><ul><li>Severe exacerbations may be treated with corticosteroids </li></ul>
  14. 14. ON THE HORIZON <ul><li>Several new oral therapies are in trials </li></ul><ul><li>Continued work to determine remaining genetic risk factors </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers are working with several techniques aimed to repair damaged myelin </li></ul>For more information, visit www.nationalmssociety.org

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