Lauren ArtiseMrs. TilleryMarch 15, 2012 ACL Tear Prevention Exercise Booklet Everyone knows that the danger of playing an aggressive contact sport is the highrisk of injury, however, most people do not know that seventy percent of all ACL tearsare noncontact injuries. Hi, my name is Lauren Artise, and for my senior project, Icreated an ACL tear prevention exercise booklet. I chose to do my project on the ACLbecause I have torn my ACLs three times and have undergone surgery and rehabilitationon all three tears. In order for me to be able to inform others on ways to prevent an ACL tear, I hadto focus my research paper on the anatomy of the knee and leg as well as whatweaknesses and bad habits make athletes become more prone to a tear. The knee is alarge joint composed of bones, muscles, ligaments and the meniscus.The four bonesinvolved in the knee are the femur, patella, tibia, and fibula and serve to provide supportfor the body. The muscles and ligaments use these bones as sites of attachment. The mainmuscles that deal with the knee are the quadriceps, hamstrings, gastrocnemius, andsoleus, and are necessary for body movement. The knee is made up of four ligaments: theLCL, MCL, PCL, and ACL. These ligaments allow movement and are vital to the bodyduring athletic activity. The ACL, or Anterior Cruciate Ligament, is responsible for
mobility, preventing the tibia from coming forward, and providing stability when cuttingfrom side to side. There are several risk factors that come to play with being prone to ACL tears.Anatomically, females have a larger Q-angle due to wider hips, which causes their kneesto become valgus, or knock- kneed and puts stress on the MCL. In addition, females havea smaller femoral notch that makes it harder for the ACL to move freely and thereforeincreases the risk of injury. Biomechanically, females have weaker hips and badtechniques when jumping. Females have a hormonal disadvantage against males becausewhen they are on their menstrual cycle, their hormones are off balanced, creating a higherrisk in a tear. Environmentally, however, both females and males can suffer from poorweather conditions and exhaustion. One interesting fact I learned through my research isthat females are six times more likely to tear their ACL than males. There are three grades of ACL tears: a sprain, a partial tear, and a complete tear.A sprain is a strain of the ACL and does not require any surgery. A partial tear is wherethe ACL tears some but is still in tact. A person with a partial tear does not need surgerybut may need some rehabilitation. A complete tear is the most severe and is where theACL completely separates. In order to be involved in any physical activity after acomplete tear, the person must go through surgery and rehabilitation. The two types of surgery are open surgery and arthroscopic surgery. During opensurgery, a large incision is made on the front of the knee. Arthroscopic surgery uses aseries of small incisions as well as a small camera that goes into the knee and allowssurgeons to view the operation site without having to make a large cut. However, withtoday’s technology, arthroscopic surgery has become more common because the
incisions are smaller and the risk of infection is less. Patients can use an autograft, whichis a tendon in their body, or an allograft, also known as a cadaver, to replace their tornACL. Since patients replace their Anterior Cruciate Ligament with a tendon, they have tohave a period of rehabilitation and rest from sports in order for ligamentization to occur.Ligamentization is the time it takes for the body to break down the tendon and then buildit back up as the new ligament. For my product, I decided to create an ACL tear prevention exercise booklet that,if completed correctly, is proven through my research to reduce the risk of an injury tothe ACL. I chose to make a prevention booklet because I have experienced the strugglesthat come with surgery and rehabilitation and how it can make an impact on your futureas an athlete pursuing a sport in college. I want to help others become aware of the risk oftearing an ACL and inform them on ways to avoid the challenges I faced for four years ofmy soccer career. I created my booklet by figuring out what made people tear their ACLsthrough my research and then counteracting the weaknesses by making exercises thatimprove these specific areas. My book consists of knee anatomy and ACL function, signsof a possible tear, important exercise tips, and exercises in the three categories ofstability, strength, and stretching. These three categories allow people to focus on eachspecific muscle or area of weakness in order to improve the knee as a whole. My project facilitator was Steven Arispe, a PTA (physical therapist assistant) anda CKTP (Certified Kinesio Taping Practitioner) at Pinnacle Orthopaedics. I chose him asmy facilitator because he has helped me get through all three of my ACL rehabilitations. Iam very thankful to have had him help me recover and teach me almost everything that Iknow about knees. My main challenge throughout this project was that I tore my left
ACL for a second time in October. It made me doubt myself on whether or not I couldhelp others avoid an injury that I had become so prone to. However, I quickly learnedwhat I had been doing wrong throughout my career and was able to go through rehabagain with a deeper understanding and a greater interest in my rehab protocol. I becamemore experienced, and I believe that it allowed me to create a better booklet. I now know that the body has to be balanced in order to function properly. I havebeen in a weight lifting class since I was a sophomore, and I had made it a personal goalto be the greatest girl squatter in the school. I was able to achieve a maximum squat attwo hundred and forty-five pounds. As a result, my quadriceps had become very strongand my hamstrings lacked the strength needed to support them, which became thedownfall of my success. In the fall, I am going to the University of Georgia with a majorin biology and a minor in chemistry with the hopes of going into medical school andbecoming an orthopedic. I enjoyed doing this project, and it has made me really want tohelp others avoid this type of injury. I really appreciate you all for taking the time tolisten to my presentation and at this time, I would be more than happy to try and answerany questions that you may have.