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New media and crisis communication powerpoint

This was for a COMM 8570 University of Nebraska at Omaha Masters Foundations of Mass Communications class in Spring 2015.

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New media and crisis communication powerpoint

  1. 1. New Media in Crisis Communication: A Comparison of Different Media During the Oklahoma State University Basketball Plane Crashes Lauren Adams M.A. student in Communications University of Nebraska at Omaha COMM 8570, Spring 2015
  2. 2. Outline • Purpose • Crisis Communication • Situation Crisis Communication Theory • Best Practices of Crisis Communication • Message Convergence • Social Media • Media Relations • Media Dependency • Case Study: Two OSU airplane crashes • Research questions/methodology
  3. 3. Purpose • Because every organization faces times of crisis, it is important that organizations handle these situations correctly • Knowing the best strategies to use in crisis management • Social media’s role in crisis communication • Role of media and organizations during crises • OSU crisis communication plans for the crashes
  4. 4. Crisis Communication • “The purpose of crisis communication is to prevent or lessen the negative outcomes of a crisis and thereby protect the organization, stakeholders, and industry from harm,” (Veil & Ojeda, 2010, p. 414)
  5. 5. Situation Crisis Theory • Past crises shape an organization • Three types of crises: – victim, accidental, preventable • Reputation management vs. base crisis communication • Identification of publics: “hot-issue publics” (Aldoory, 2012, p. 94)
  6. 6. Best Practices in Crisis Communication • A specific communicator in charge of crisis communication • Proactive crisis communication plans • Working with various publics • Transparency, Honesty, Trust • Relations with Media • Call to Action
  7. 7. Message Convergence • Actual message importance • Informed public • Message platform
  8. 8. Media Relations • Back in 2000, many split-second decisions were made in crises when dealing with media • Previous tactics – Listen to every question – Explain the plan of action – Prepare necessary background information – Know common assumptions – Be as proactive as possible – Take action to minimize negative outcomes
  9. 9. Media Relations • The Relationship between Public Relation professionals and the Media – Lack of trust – Interdependency – When partnered, beneficial to all • Tactics of Media Relations – Transparency, accuracy, accessibility, trust, maintenance
  10. 10. Social Media • “Social media have changed the nature of everyday communications by providing a platform for individuals and organizations alike to engage with each other in a dynamic, synchronized, and multidirectional dialogue that represents varied voices,” (Reitz, 2012, p. 43). • Need for social media today • Mobility
  11. 11. Social Media & Crisis Communication • Too many information sources • Immediate information • Perceived source credibility • Monitoring and observing public • Establish trust
  12. 12. Media Dependency • “The more a person depends on having his or her meeds met by media use, the more important will be the role that media play in the person’s life, and therefore the more influence those media will have on that person,” (Baran, 2006, p. 324). • Relational not goal-oriented • Media power
  13. 13. Case Study: Two OSU airplane crashes • January 27, 2001- Remember the Ten – No crisis plan was in place – “Do what was right” – “OSU administrators realized the importance of grieving and giving mourners an outlet for their pain, not only through the website, but also in other ways,” (Wigley, 2003, p. 41).
  14. 14. Case Study: Two OSU airplane crashes • November 18, 2011- Remember the Four – Social media already established and thriving – Instant updates via social media – No research has been conducted on this event thus far for more information about what was done throughout the crisis plan for this incident.
  15. 15. Research Questions • RQ1: What changed within the crisis communication strategies between the first OSU and second OSU basketball plane crashes? – RQ1a: How did the crisis communication strategies of the first basketball plane crash prepare OSU for the second basketball plane crash? – RQ1b: How proactive was OSU for the second basketball plane crash? – RQ1c: What were the main goals of the crisis communication strategies for the first plane crash? – RQ1d: What were the main goals of the crisis communication strategies for the second plane crash? • RQ2: What crisis communication best practices did OSU use during these crises? – RQ2a: What best practices were used during the first OSU plane crash? – RQ2b: What best practices were used during the second OSU plane crash? – RQ2c: How were the overlapping best practices used differently between the two different crashes? – RQ2d: What did OSU request of its various publics as a call of action during the first plane crash? – RQ2e: What did OSU request of its various publics as a call of action during the second plane crash?
  16. 16. Research Questions Cont. • RQ3: How did OSU utilize the media in both plane crashes? – RQ3a: How did the university build media relations in the first plane crash? – RQ3b: How did the university build media relations in the second plane crash? – RQ3c: How did social media impact the nature of crisis communication being played out in the second plane crash? – RQ3d: What did OSU use to communicate out to its publics before social media during the first plane crash?
  17. 17. References • Adams, W. C. (2000). Responding to the Media During a Crisis: It's What You Say and When You Say It. Public Relations Quarterly, 45(1), 26-28. • • Aldoory, L., & Grunig, J. E. (2012). The Rise and Fall of Hot-Issue Publics: Relationships that Develop From Media Coverage of Events and Crises. International Journal Of Strategic Communication, 6(1), pp. 93-108. • • Anthony, K. E., Sellnow, T. L., & Millner, A. G. (2013). Message Convergence as a Message-centered Approach to Analyzing and Improving Risk Communication. Journal Of Applied Communication Research, 41(4), 346-364. • • Baran, S.K., & Davis, D.K. (2006). Media and audiences: Theories about the role of media in everyday life. In D. Amidon-Brent, & S. Allen (Eds.), Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, ferment, and future, 324-329. • • Coombs, W. T. (2004). Impact of Past Crises On Current Crisis Communication. Journal Of Business Communication, 41(3), 265-289. • • Jackob, N.E. (2010). No Alternatives? The relationship between perceived media dependency, use of alternative information sources, and general trust in mass media. International Journal Of Communication (19328036), 4589-4606. • • Kaul, V. (2013). PR and the Media: Friends or Foes?. Global Media Journal: Pakistan Edition, 6(1), 58-90. • • Kim, S., & Sung, K. H. (2014). Revisiting the Effectiveness of Base Crisis Response Strategies in Comparison of Reputation Management Crisis Responses. Journal Of Public Relations Research, 26(1), 62-78. doi:10.1080/1062726X.2013.795867 • • Leonardi, P. M., Huysman, M., & Steinfield, C. (2013). Enterprise Social Media: Definition, History, and Prospects for the Study of Social Technologies in Organizations. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(1), 1-19. • • Liu, A. (2014). The History of Social Media. Digital Trends, Retrieved from • • Oh, O., Agrawal, M., & Rao, H. R. (2013). Community Intelligence and Social Media Services: A Rumor Theoretic Analysis of Tweets During Social Crises. MIS Quarterly, 37(2), pp.407-A7. • • Papasolomou, I., & Melanthiou, Y. (2012). Social Media: Marketing Public Relations’ New Best Friend. Journal Of Promotion Management, 18(3), 319-328. • • Piotrowski, C. (2015). Social Media: Main Topics in Dissertation Research, Education, 135(3), 299-302. • • Reitz, A. (2012). Social Media's Function in Organizations: A Functional Analysis Approach. Global Media Journal: Canadian Edition, 5(2), 41-56. • • Ruggiero, A., & Vos, M. (2014). Social Media Monitoring for Crisis Communication: Process, Methods and Trends in the Scientific Literature.Online Journal Of Communication & Media Technologies, 4(1), 105-130. • • Ruggiero, T.E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3(1), 3-37.
  18. 18. References continued • Seeger, M. W. (2006). Best Practices in Crisis Communication: An Expert Panel Process. Journal Of Applied Communication Research, 34(3), 232-244. • • Smith, E. and Gardiner, A. (2011). Oklahoma State women’s coach Kurt Budke, assistant die in plane crash. USA TODAY. Retrieved from • • Stehr, P., Rössler, P., Leissner, L., & Schönhardt, F. (2015). Parasocial Opinion Leadership Media Personalities' Influence within Parasocial Relations: Theoretical Conceptualization and Preliminary Results. International Journal Of Communication (19328036), 9982-1001. • • Sun, S., Rubin, A.M., & Haridakis, P.M. (2008). The role of motivation and media involvement in explaining Internet dependency. Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52(3), 408-431. • • Veil, S. R., & Ojeda, F. (2010). Establishing Media Partnerships in Crisis Response. Communication Studies, 61(4), 412-429. • • Waters, R. D. (2013). Tracing the Impact of Media Relations and Television Coverage on U.S. Charitable Relief Fundraising: An Application of Agenda- Setting Theory across Three Natural Disasters. Journal Of Public Relations Research, 25(4), 329-346. • • Westerman, D., Spence, P. R., & Van Der Heide, B. (2014). Social Media as Information Source: Recency of Updates and Credibility of Information. Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(2), 171-183. • • Wigley, S. (2003). Relationship Maintenance in a Time of Crisis: The 2001 Oklahoma State University Plane Crash. Public Relations Quarterly,48(2), pp. 39-42.