mLearning Research GhanaPreliminary FindingsOctober 2011L.Dawes, N.D‟Elia
Ghana Research Structure Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 17Expert Interviews Urban Rural Urban 3 In-depth Interviews Qualitative Quantitative Review Research Tools Rural Urban 8 Focus Groups Urban Rural 300 Quantitative Surveys Mobile 1,000 COMPLETED Survey
In 2011, Ghana‟s GDP growth was the 13.6% - the fastestgrowing economy in Africa and second fastest globally,however……. Unemployment and underemployment remain major problems, reflecting the failure of past economic growth to generate substantial formal employment in the private sector, and the lack of job-relevant skills of the majority of the workforce. Ghana‟s labour market is still characterised by the dominance of employment in agriculture and a large informal economy. Government figures indicate that currently two out of three working adults are employed. The national unemployment rate is estimated at only 3% by government sources. The low rate of unemployment in the country disguises the high levels of unemployment and underemployment inherent in the large informal sector estimated at 90% of the population. The government‟s definition of unemployment excludes the large numbers of jobless people who may be available for work but do not necessarily seek work, for various reasons. Given the large informal sector where the genuine unemployed are engaging in any economic activity simply to survive, concerted effort is needed to reduce the numbers in employment that may be considered as vulnerable, as well as the “working poor”. Daily Monitor
The „missing link‟ between Education and Employment High inflation is causing strikes in universities and schools The current government‟s Education Strategy Plan (2003-15) provides free and compulsory basic education aimed at achieving universal primary education by 2015 which has led to improvements in various key education indicators. For example, government figures show primary school gross enrolment stands at 94.9%. Beyond this, the education system appears to be failing to provide the relevant knowledge base for learners at all levels to compete in todays global economy. There is a lack of technically prepared and vocationally trained youths with many studying for more corporate jobs and demand for these roles is outstripping supply. “Essentially, the system has failed to provide an adequate knowledge base, relevant skills and a positive attitude towards work.” Prof. T. P. Manus Ulzen
Expresso CDMA 2012(?) n. connections 10.2M 2.8M 4.3M 3.6M - 0.2MGhana has been a pioneer in African telecommunications: It launched the first cellular mobile network in sub-Saharan Africa in 1992, it was among the firstcountries on the continent to be connected to the Internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services, and it led the way in market liberalisation andderegulation when it privatised Ghana Telecom (GT) as early as 1996. Since then, Ghana has become one of the continent‟s most vibrant mobile marketswith now six competing operators, including regional heavyweights such as MTN, Vodafone, Millicom (Tigo) and Zain which was taken over by Bharti ofIndia in 2010.While the voice market is approaching saturation at more than 75% penetration in mid-2011, enormous potential in both subscriber and ARPU terms existsfor the provision of 3G mobile broadband services which have surpassed existing ADSL services within a few months of their launch.
There is a perceived price war, but does it really exist….The price war going on in Ghana may not be a direct war in terms of drastic reductions in local call rates but in theform of tariff plans, which promise value for money. “A closer look at, and comparative analysis of some of the planswould show they do not deliver any real value to the customer as promised in the loud ads and commercials, whichare designed to cause people to rush into patronizing those offers long before realising they are victims of marketinggimmicks.” Samuel Nii Narku Dowuona, Adom Radio News Editor, Ghana However, could this all change with Glo entering the market?Nigerian based Glo plan to enter the market on November 17 2011 after a long awaited launch promising “acomprehensive suite of high quality and reliable voice and data services and very competitive rates that wouldchange the telecommunications landscape in the country”. Close monitoring of the mobile market in Ghana is vital asnew pricing structures, offers and technology will likely change the current landscape dramatically.
Per minute Per minute Per minute Per minute Voice MTN Zone Friends and Family Value packages Bonus credit MTN Family & Friends Free nights calls IDD/Hajj bundle Stop the clock IDD bundle Free2Bu Family & Friends Call Me Back Bonus credit IDD Free weekends Intl Reload Bonus credit Text a Lot SMS SMS bundle Magic SMS Conference call FB SMS Google SMS Voice SMS Notify me Value packages SMS Gift & Collect Data iFest Mobile broadband Mobile broadband Smartbrowse Payback Airtel Money Tigo Cash VAS and Other MobileMoney Caller Tunes Loyalty reward Tigo SOS My Special Number Loyalty Program Credit transfer Colour Ring DSTV Mobile M2U Tigo Ads Cash Mania Family Care InsuranceCheap deals on voice - MNOs are trying to gain market share by offering better dealsAffordable data bundle - under 1GB cost per MB is between 0.02 and 0.03 GHS3 Mobile Money Services - MTN Mobile Money, Airtel Money and Tigo CashNumber Portability - Launched by operators to capture customers „loyal‟ to their numberInnovative VAS products and offerings - Loyalty Scheme, Ads, Insurance, Number selection, Prizes, etc.
Trying to overturn the status quo Mobile Money has not been14.4Gs/min successful yetwith double bonus Innovation is the other secret8Gs/min weapon Data has been growing consistently in the recent years6Gs-9Gs/min especially in urban areas7Gs/min 3Gs/min
Devices RLG, with offices in Ghana, Nigeria, The Gambia, and China, is is a Ghanaian- owned limited liability company engaged in the production of communications equipment such as mobile handsets, 320 GHS electronic notebooks, tablets, laptops, LCD Samsung Galaxy Mini TV monitors and more. 200 US$Grey market handsets arevery polular also in Ghana ~50% Single SIM Single SIM Single SIM Data Android Flashlight Bluetooth 521 MB Radio FM Camera/Video GPS Data card Data card Ovi etc. 38 GHS 80 GHS 280 GHS Nokia 1280 Nokia C1 Huawei IDEOS 24 US$ 50 US$ 175 US$ All Mobile Operators provided branded basic handsets
rlg Communications is a Ghanaian-owned company engaged in the production of communications equipment such as mobile handsets,electronic notebooks, tablets, laptops, LCD TV monitors and more.rlg is also engaged in capacity building and training programmes in collaboration with Ghana‟s Ministry of Youth and Sports as part of theNational Youth Employment Programmes (NYEP). Competitive prices „Proudly yours‟ Training local youth Mobile Laptop Tablet LCD r series g series l series ALREADY IN COMMERCE TO BE LAUNCHED IN 2012
Approach to MNOsThe is a great pride in Ghana and many local businesses feel that itis „their time’. “We are not East Africa. It’s time that we started lookingmore closely at the West African market and what services will workhere.” Nana Osei Afrifa, Innovation Manager, MTN GhanaMNOs are looking for the competitive edge and services such aslearning, agri, and health are being investigated with keen interest.MNOs are trying to understand why Mobile Money services are notworking in Ghana and how to increase the uptake of other financialservices. Financial Literacy is seen as one of these barriers.“In Africa, fewer than 5% of the poor have any type of insurance policy at all. And yet, low-income people need insurance the most.While the poor are acutely aware of the risks they face to life, property, and health, they are usually unaware of how formal financialservices can benefit them. Financial literacy is essential to overcoming this service gap so the demand among the poor for effectiverisk mitigation can be satisfied by high-quality, formal insurance products. Financial literacy also provides power to the poor, ensuringthat financial service providers offer products and services at high quality.” Peter Gross, MicroEnsure
m4d Initiatives Content and EpiSurveyor M-Insurance interactive Marketing Learning Solutions MOTECH Services Pre-loading handsets with content Mobile Technology for Community Camfed is building an “end-to-end Health (MOTECH) initiative in onto some of the grey market digitalised data collection and Provide microensurance that is November 2008 to determine how handsets for select manufacturers Ad-Connect have developed a analysis system”, designed to give purchased and managed via any mobile phones could be used to Developed Interactive Text games platform that delivers classroom communities the tools and the skills mobile handset. Currently working improve care for pregnant mothers similar to TV series “The Amazing content to more than 10,000,to track resources, monitor education with both MTN and Tigo in Ghana and newborns in rural Ghana. Race” whereby contestants have to students via feature phones. The quality and demand accountability and also launched in Tanzania. M- Funded by a grant from the Bill & answer a question to move on to the system has the ability to track from government and schools Insurance has reached over 250,000 Melinda Gates Foundation, this is a next stage – incorrect entries are quizzes and tests through results,through the use of live data. It allows users in Ghana alone. Currently collaborative initiative between penalised with a time delay. The and track the number of times a tracking of expenditure on individual investigating the ways in which Grameen Foundation, Columbia nature of the questions can be specific piece of content has been girls‟ entitlements and ensure that all financial literacy can be delivered in University‟s Mailman School of themed (e.g. geography, history). downloaded, or which users are items reach their designated target order to promote uptake of the Public Health, the Ghana Health Work with MNOs operating in sub- downloading content. whilst following up on any service. Service, and the Dodowa Health Saharan Africa providing content irregularities. Research Center. provisioning & content promotion.
Expert Interview InsightsWest Africa is a very different market to the rest of Africaand the time has come to focus efforts on localinitiatives90% of those working are employed in the informalsectorFinancial Literacy is seen as a barrier to uptake ofmobile money and other financial services
Expert Interview InsightsThe Last Mile – There is a divide between thenorth and south, services need to be designed toreach as many underserved as possible Ghanaians are used to things not working, they are hesitant towards change
Expert Interview InsightsBe realistic: Rural migrants often believe thatmore jobs and social opportunities areavailable in urban areas, but once in the citiesthey find themselves without a job and withlimited social networks. This can lead to an influx of youths seeking work in the sex trade and other illegal industries. For example, when asked what he does when going online,18 y.o Ernest claimed he „commits fraud‟ and „tricks foreigners‟. This is something becoming more common as often it provides a seemingly „easy‟ or lucrative way out of an impoverished life.
Focus Group Setup Learnings8 Focus Groups: Urban/Rural, Low-Med/Med-High Education, Beginner/TechiePlaying an active role helps to draw out better results15 – 24 is a highly influential age group and observation is required to help determine the most accurate resultsCounter productive participants can be removed!
Focus Group InsightsAn even split between those who prefer to learnin a group and those who prefer to learn aloneThe use of mobile data is widespread and canprovide a richer channel to deliver services,especially in urban areas People rarely change network providers keeping the same number from the time they sign up to a network. Number portability is recently available in the last few months but has yet to effect any change to this
Focus Group InsightsMost youths want to be successful and have a clear pictureof the career they want however…..There is a lack of understanding the steps required to get togain employment. Youths want to be successful andentrepreneurial but do not know how to achieve these goals.Word of mouth is the best way to gain employment for most,however the more corporate jobs exist on Ghanaweb.com
Focus Group InsightsSeveral common professions were identified throughoutthe focus groups – Nursing, Accounting, Businessman /Entrepreneur Sakawa, a West African subcultures combining internet fraud and juju or Black Magic, is becoming a bit part of Ghanaian youth culture. In Accra there are 850k users - 61.24% of the population. Many youths are spending up to two hours at a time chatting to friends each day on Facebook – it can‟t be ignored that FB provides an excellent platform to reach youths
IsaacIsaac is 15. He lives in Achimota, GreaterAccra with his mother. His father leftwhen he was just a young boy and hismother, Victoria, has since raised him onher own. Victoria has her own beautysalon where she can have from just a fewclients each day, sometimes earning just3GHS (USD1.80) for a day’s work. Isaacdoes not have a phone as his mothercannot afford one for him, however he isable to use hers on occasion. He has aFacebook account and when he goesonline to chat with friends, he spends upto 30 minutes at a time chatting aboutmaths and other things he has learnt atschool. Isaac loves football and followsManchester United. He is a keen studierwith a natural curiosity and thirst forknowledge. When he grows up, Isaacwants to be a meteorologist.
n.SIM Mobile Survey n=1,000 Mobile Data Users Nokia and Sony-Ericsson represents nearly 50% of the market Majority of mobile data users are male (82.5%) What kind of educational services would be of 72% of the respondents have secondary education and greatest interest to you? higher 2/3 of the data users are students, 13.5% is unemployed Only 3% of the respondents use Mobile Money services 86% would definitely/surely be interested in learning through mobile phones What kind of employment services would be of greatest interest to you? 5 most important activities on 5 top content you would be interested in mobile: 1. Music (63%) 1. Browsing (68%) 2. Education (56%) 2. Voice (64%) 3. Games (51%) 3. SMS (48%) 4. Pictures/Videos (44%) 4. Music (44%) 5. Sport/Entertainment (40%) 5. Games (31%) Preferred way for learning via mobile: 1. Mobile Internet (75%) 2. SMS (46%) 3. Voice (28%) 4. Apps (27%) 5. Social Networking (22%)