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9912 mt520healingasmissions


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9912 mt520healingasmissions

  1. 1. MT520 Biblical foundation of Mission Healing in terms of Healing Introduction God reveals Himself in the Bible from Genesis to Revelation as a father who takes the initiative to heal, to restore. He desires to have an intimate relationship with His own children from the little ones to all the nations. The thesis of this paper is the father-heart in healing the least ones of all to evangelize the nations. “ If my people who are called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then will I hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and will heal their land.” (2 Ch.7:14) Father–Heart of God in Healing As the Creator of the human race, Father God looks upon each adult male, female, boy and girl as one who He longs to embrace into His own arms. However, since the Fall, the primary consequence of human sin is separation from Father God. All the other consequences are inevitable byproducts. Adam and Eve, by rebelling against God, delivered themselves and their descendants into the hands of Satan, who exploits human sin and brokenness as a means of securing his position as ruler of this world. Death, shame, denial, emotional sickness, racism--human brokenness in all its dimensions-- is characteristic of Satan’s counterfeit kingdom. To effectively love God with one’s whole being as the greatest commandment says: “ Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind”(Mt. 2: 37), we need to be free from hurtful 1
  2. 2. memories and from the wounded emotions. They lead us into sin, depression, feelings of worthlessness, inferiority, shame and fear. The purpose of healing is not just that we feel better, but that we enter into a lifelong intimacy relationship with Jesus, who has power to change our lives in every dimension. In the end, Father God does not want us to keep the delightful discovery of intimacy with him to ourselves. We are to be sent as Jesus was into the world to bring others into the father-son and father-daughter relationship that Jesus has introduced us to. God longs to father all the children who are made in His image. To be able to carry out His commission, we need the Spirit of son-ship (childship) in our hearts. And “Mission” is fullness of the one and only living God’s life lived out in myself (Mission Hominum) with community ( Missions Ecclesiarum) beating, breaking, and longing for what God’s heart beats for, is broken for, and longing after. His children need to respond to the dynamic and radical life, which reflects His heart’s permeating presence in the totality of life of all the nations (Missio politica Oecumenica). When one addresses the topic of mission, there are two groups: one “all the nations”, the other, is the little ones, that is the poor, children, the weary and overburdened( Mt 11:28), “the least ones of all” (25:40, 45 ). The “little ones” in the strange strategy of Jesus, became not only the objects but also the subjects of mission. In the mean time, we might ask “Can a church of the ‘great ones,’ ‘the strong ones,’ ‘the prosperous ones’ or the ‘comfortable ones’ evangelize or be evangelized by the little ones? Who are the little ones 2
  3. 3. in our society? What is the church doing for them, and what is their place as subjects of mission through the churches?” Four examples I chose in this paper illustrate Father-heart’s longing for the little ones, who do not know Father-heart yet. First, Father-heart’s aching cry—“Adam, Where are you?” Second, how was Naomi’s bitterness healed by His perfect love? Third, the parable of the prodigal father helps us to recognize our sonship in Him. Four, Peter’s tri-conversion in the end to conclude with my own missiological application. “Adam, Where Are You?” . . . And the eyes of Adam and Eve both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. (Gen.3:7) Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them with animal skin, God made the clothing for them. (Gen.3:21) When Adam’s transgression caused him to hide from God, it was the beginning of a most terrible distortion of what man was created to be, as well as a severe reduction of his intellectual and spiritual capacities. These could only be restored when coming out of “hiding”--opening to God and to each other, becoming genuinely transparent. It is as we behold the glory of the Lord with an “ unveiled face” that we are changed into His image. The veils are caused by our hiding. It is the very first question to man, when the Lord asked Adam where he was after the transgression. And, it is the first one that one must answer if one is to be fully restored to Him. When one can fully answer 3
  4. 4. this question, knowing where one is in relation to God, restoration will follow. One can only know the answer to this question when in His presence. You are right to seek to know My mind, My ways and My purposes, but you must also earnestly desire to know My heart. When you know my heart, then the eyes of your heart will be opened. Then you will see as I see, and you will do what I do. (Joyner 1996:133) Naomi’s bitterness was healed by His love . . . and Naomi was left without her two sons and her husband. Would you wait until they grow up? Would you remain unmarried for them? No, my daughters. It is more bitter for me than for you, because the Lord’s hand has gone out against me! At this they wept again. Then Orpah kissed her mother-in-law good-by, but Ruth clung to her. (Ruth 1:5,13,14) Father-heart of God is to be the father of the fatherless, to be father of the widow. He stores our tears in a bottle. In Psalm 56:8, “Thou tellest my wanderings: put thou my tears into thy bottle: are they not in thy book?” To suffer is bitter. But to suffer without reason is even more devastating—and that was precisely what was happening to those like Naomi. We need to grasp the full extent of the painful animosity and discriminatory attitudes in respect to all aspects of daily life. At one point, Naomi was a widow of no spiritual covering. But the Lord is mighty to restore her as a bi-cultural bridge to people in His Kingdom later. And, the love between Boas and Ruth becomes the instrument which God used to heal Naomi’s bitterness. God stored her tears, like He did for the little Worm in Jill Briscoe’s Jonah and the Worm. The 4
  5. 5. Wonder Maker’s voice could be heard, saying distinctly, “ One, two, three, four. Why, why—He’s counting my tears!” (Briscoe, 1983: 84) Like Naomi, no matter how deep the pit into which we descend, we can keep finding God there. He is not aloof from our suffering but draws near tome when we suffer. He is vulnerable to pain, quick to shed tears, and acquainted with grief like in Isaiah 25:8, “He will swallow up death in victory; and the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from off all faces; and the rebuke of his people shall he take away from off all the earth: for the LORD hath spoken it.” God is a suffering resolving One. Who feels the sorrow of the world. (Sittser 1996:143). Now we can say Naomi is the true daughter of Father God. Because those who are poor in spirit, who mourn, who are meek, and who hunger and thirst for righteousness; those who are merciful, pure in heart and peacemakers; and those who openly confess him—they are the true sons and daughters of the Kingdom.( Mat. 5:3-11) Furthermore, because of the account in Ruth 4:17, “He was the father of Jesse, the father of David”, Jesus came from Naomi’s line. Jesus Is the Hinge Pin of History The uniqueness of Jesus’ ministry as the Servant of Yahweh is found in his concern for individuals, such as Naomi, as Father God did. He truly loves people and esteemed them worthy of respect and appreciation because they were bearers of the divine image. Jesus’ messianic ministry involved demonstrating the nature of the Kingdom of God by many and varied acts of healing and exorcism. He gave sight to the blind ( Mk. 8:22-26); restored paralyzed and withered limbs ( Mk 3:1-6); cleansed 5
  6. 6. the leprous (Lk. 5:12-16); and healed those afflicted with various diseases and pains, demonic, epileptics and paralytics( Matt 4:24) Indeed, the Kingdom he proclaims, by being accompanied by these acts, pointed in the direction of the ultimate end of evil, sickness and death. Hence all his healings and exorcisms have eschatological significance. (Glasser 1989:186) The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn, and provide for those who grieve in Zion--to bestow on them a crown of beauty instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, and a garment of praise instead of a spirit of despair. They will be called oaks of righteousness, a planting of the LORD for the display of his splendor. (Isa. 61:1-4) When Can You Tell When The Holy Spirit Passes By? Who can see the Wind? Neither you nor I. But when the trees bow down their heads before me, The wind is passing by.( Van Engen 1999) The function of signs tells us that we can see the Spirit is passing by when people’s lives and social structure is transformed, and the Holy Spirit always points attention to Jesus. As a matter of fact, the manifestations of these signs also in the Acts remind us again and again of Jesus’ ministry and demonstrate the reality of the present dimensions of the Kingdom message. These signs point to the retreat of the devil and “ the powers” before the advance of the Kingdom. These Signs which are found through Acts signified the relationship between evangelism and social responsibility. 6
  7. 7. The fourth sign is the healing and nature miracles, anticipating the final Kingdom from which all disease, hunger, disorder, and death will be banished forever. (Glasser 1989:251) In the Old Testament, the Spirit is the living active power of God, giving life to all and empowering people to perform special service or to receive special revelation. And according to Luke‘s Gospel, Jesus interprets the words of Isaiah 61:1-2, as a foreshadowing of His ministry. Actually, Luke 4:16-19 was the Spirit that Jesus lived by, for: The Spirit anoints Jesus. (Newbigin 1995:23). The first Adam had a lack of intimacy with Father God. As the second Adam, Jesus demonstrated the intimacy with the Father that Adam, Eve, and all their descendants were meant to experience. When Jesus heals, his acts have eschatological significance and is always the sign and pledge of the breaking-in of the Messianic Age, an anticipatory participation in its blessings. The Parable of the Prodigal Father The well known parable of the story of the prodigal son should actually be: the Parable of the Prodigal Father. Jesus gives us a wondrous picture of our loving Father-heart of God in the person of the prodigal’s father, who acts contrary to cultural expectations in restoring his wayward but repentant son to a place of importance in the family. The father gives a ring and a robe, restores self-esteem and sense of value and worth, expresses his gladness and shows his love. This parable reveals Jesus’ mission and ministry to seek out the lost, 7
  8. 8. those in whom the image of God has been marred or distorted. It reveals God’s love for us, his desire to heal, renew and restore our whole person. In terms of mission, to be able to carry out Father God’s commission, we need the Spirit of son-ship ( childship) in our hearts like the prodigal son has. The Sonship is accepted and appreciated on the basis of who he is and because of a relationship, and rests in the secure love of his family. The child can be secure all day, and know that tomorrow won’t change the status. When a servant fails, his whole position is at stake; he might lose his job. When a child fails, there will be much grief, because he has hurt his parents, and he will be corrected and disciplined. But he is not afraid of being thrown out. His basic confidence is in belonging and being loved, and his performance does not change the stability of his position.(Seamands 1985: 23) Peter’s Tri-Conversion Peter, as he was not understanding Father–heart yet, was converted to Jesus Christ, who is the head of the Church and who so loved the world which He gave his life to. The way Jesus handled Peter’s denial and restoration is an example in the Bible to heal the little one’s painful memories. There are only two places in the New Testament where the word for a “charcoal fire” is used. In John 18:18 we were told that Peter stood with the servants and officers in the courtyard warming himself before a “ charcoal fire” It was there he denied Jesus three times. Later on the beach, that post-Resurrection morning, when Jesus prepared breakfast for the disciples, He deliberately set the stage for Peter. ( Jn. 21:9) 8
  9. 9. Once again, there was the “charcoal fire.” Jesus, Master Physician and Psychiatrist forced Peter to stand near a charcoal fire. His memories and his shame must have burned within him. Three times he had denied his Lord and three times he was asked to affirm his love for Him--standing before those hot red coals. Jesus used a fire of coals, somewhat like a “coal off the altar of fire” used by the Lord in Isaiah 6, to cauterize and heal Peter’s pain and shame. As he faced pain in all its specifics, his memories were healed, and he was restored and recommissioned for service. Our deep and hurting memories, which shape us away from both God and each other, are often sore points in our lives. We can run and hide from our memories like Adam and Eve. Our wounding memories are healed first of all by letting them be available, by leading them out of the corner of forgetfulness and by remembering them as a part of our life stories. What is forgotten is unavailable, and what is unavailable can not be healed.( Nouwen n.d.:22) Peter’s betrayal of Jesus and final restoration show us how reliving a past episode can bring healing. Peter had boasted that he would follow Jesus to prison and to death. When Jesus is arrested, Peter follows along to the house of the chief priest, where he watches as Jesus is beaten (Jn.18:22). While warming his hands over a charcoal fire outside the priest home (Jn.18:18), Peter, fearful and defensive, betrays Jesus three times. Just as he finishes his denial, a rooster crowed. Peter went outside and wept bitterly; shame, fear and weakness-- exposed by pride, boasting and betrayal--are lodged in Peter’s inner being. Surely the smell of this charcoal fire reminded Peter vividly of the scene of his 9
  10. 10. betrayal of Jesus. The three questions unlock the bondage of the three betrayals as Jesus heals Peter and restores him to ministry, charging him to “feed my sheep”. Inner healing comes, as Peter is restored through reliving the hurtful event. Though the enemy sifted Peter ( Lk. 22: 31-32) and tempted him at a point of weakness, God overcomes and triumphs even through Peter’s fall. (Flynn 1993:68) From the way Jesus healed Peter, we can see that mission is obedience where we are at no matter how little we are, where we are called to, and to whom we serve. Whenever Christ is, there is mission. Our lives are to be a lifestyle, which is constantly having its will broken in and molded, by the sweet Spirit of God’s heart for our neighbor. Our neighbor is anyone whom we connect with. We are called to avail ourselves to God, full of our dreams, trembling, and things that make us rise up and sing. Those who have come to Christ belong to him alone and have put themselves fully at his disposal. They have to keep his word in faith and obedience. Both at the end of the Old Testament and at the end of New Testament, Father God promises to heal. Mal.4:6 says, “ He will turn the hearts of the fathers to their children, and the hearts of the children to their fathers.” In Rev. 22:2 is recounted, “The River of Life flows there freely, and the leaves of the Tree of Life serve for the healing of the nations.” The content of this Gospel is none other than the coming of the Kingdom of God. The Kingdom is multi- dimensional, and it has to be announced in many ways—through preaching, teaching, healing, exorcism, calling and forming disciples, feeding, comforting 10
  11. 11. and confronting. It is proclamation in action. The presence of the Kingdom is power in action, to heal, to transform, and to confront. Definition of Mission In every generation the Church must carry on the apostle’s work and proclaim the Gospel to all nations, so far as is humanly possible at any given time. It is therefore obvious that it is only in the context of God’s mercy that one can understand the Church’s election and calling. Mission need to be balanced between global and local. Every healthy congregation should be missionary in Mo-M4, namely from Jerusalem (Mo= Renewal-Reformation- Awakening of nominal Christians within the church-Missionary–intentional ministry); Judea(M1= Evangelism Same culture, Same language, Same worldview); Samaria(M2=Evangelism Same language, different culture, Different worldview); Ends of Earth(M3=Evangelism Different language, Different culture, Different worldview); and Unreached peoples(M4= frontier Missions). Not every Christian need to do all the M0-M4. “But not all Christians have the gifts of evangelism or cross-cultural communication.” ( Van Engan 1999:87) Mission defined by Dr. Charles Van Engen is as follow: Mission is the people of God intentionally crossing barriers from church to non-church, faith to non-faith to proclaim by word and deed the coming of the kingdom of God in Jesus Christ, through the church’s participation in God’s mission of reconciling people to God, to themselves, to each other, and to the world, and gathering them into the church through repentance and faith in Jesus Christ by the work of the Holy Spirit with a view to the transformation of the world as a sign of the coming of the Kingdom in Jesus Christ (1999:90). 11
  12. 12. The Church is called “a chosen race”, “ a royal priesthood”, and “a holy nation“ and ”God’s own people.” Three of the four collective nouns relate to the image of people. The church is here seen as the introduction to God’s massive restoration program of humankind and, with them, of the whole creation. The church’s mission must be carried out by the whole people of God, and then in a spirit of humanity, cooperation, and mutuality. It is of the essence of a “sign” that to the very end it should appear in each generation which belongs to the present final phase of this age. We must have Father-Heart to know how to use such knowledge correctly. Only then will we have His approval. Father God can only trust us with His super natural knowledge to the degree that we know His heart. The gift of the Spirit that He has released to the church are but small tokens of the power of the age to come. We have been called to be the messengers of that age, and we must, therefore, know its powers. However, the goal of our life must be love, not power. Father God will give us the power to heal the sick because He loved them, He did not want them sick. Everything that I am doing, I am doing in your heart. That is where the living waters flow. That is where I am. I am about to entrust much more of the powers of the age to come to My church. However, there is a great deception that often comes upon those who are trusted with great power, and if you so not understand what I am about to show you, you, too, will fall to this deception. Only when you receive your bread directly from Me will the eyes of your heart be opened. (Joyner 1996:148) Jean Galot says “ communion with the Father expresses the most essential goal of the Christian life. It is what constitutes all its value” (1999:9) 12
  13. 13. Participating in God’s relentless pursuit of the nations is possibly one of the most intimate ways that we could spend our lives with Him. Even before the identity of the Messiah the Son of David was revealed, the Lord was showing the passion of His father-heart to Israel. His desire is that none should perish, and as such he has promised Jesus the ends of the earth for His possession. He has adopted us into His family and given us the very Spirit of His Son to dwell inside of us and help us to know Him as Father. Now He wants to use us as instruments to bring the lost, the dying multitudes into this same covenant of adoption. As we preach to them, baptize them, make disciples out of them, and raise up new churches among them, let us never forget that His deepest longing is to have them cry out to Him “Abba, Father!”(Galot 1992:9) 13
  14. 14. Ironically, another theological perspective as found in the Required MT520 Reading material, Lesson 12: “The Great Commission”, John Stott wrote: I do not doubt or deny that God can, and sometimes does, miracu- lously heal the sick. But the Church today has no authority to exercise a regular ministry of miraculous healing. Supernatural healing was plainly part of Christ’s charge to the Twelve and to the Seventy during his early ministry. . . The Church cannot automatically assume, however, that these commands apply to it today, unless it is ready to obey as well all the other commands of the mission charge to the Twelve and to the Seventy. None of these commands, including the command to heal the sick and raise the dead, belong to Christ’s charge to those disciples who shared in his own healing ministry during the days of his flesh… The Church’s primary duty is to be neither a reformer of society nor a healer of the sick but rather a preacher of the Gospel. Catch the Fire for All Nations However, I can provide a vivid example counter to that of Dr. John Stott’s theological understanding. At a Catch the Fire for All Nations Conference on November 3-8, 1999, which I atteneded at the Harvest Rock Church in Pasadena, Senior Pastor Che Ahn preached. He continued preaching and then the Holy Spirit’s ministry of healing began. There were lot of people who were healed, and gave testimony to honor God. He talked about five categories of sins which hinder the experience of the Lord's healing, including: sins against God, sins against us, sins against others, sins against ourselves ( self-rejection, self-hatred,) generational sins, such as depression, genetic deficit, Down’s Syndrome. One thing which moved me most was that he mentioned we must deal with the foundational issues of sins, forgiveness and repentance. He used the analogy of " Rat and Garbage." If we deal the 14
  15. 15. garbage, then the rat cannot stay. There were people who lost weight (nine pounds lost in two days after prayer), people grew hair, gained height, healing from physical pain, such as years of long suffering from migraines. One most amazing happenings for me was that I saw two people acquired gold crowns in their teeth when they open their mouth to show me. Like Job, I heard that before, this time I did see with my own eyes. God’s Progressive Calling for Me When everything is mission, nothing is mission. For me it is only when I seek to be exposed, and allow who I am in my heart to be exposed, will I walk in the light as Jesus is in the light. True fellowship with Father God does require complete exposure. True fellowship with other believers requires the same. Once I were no people but now I am God’s people; once I had not received mercy but now I have received mercy. It is important to note that my new situation is not described by imperatives: “Do this!” or “Be such!“ or “Because that!” , “You are. . .,” because “You have received mercy.” ( I Pet. 2:10) My own healing journey has been through the experience of being separated from God like Adam and Eve, then has been walking in Naomi’s bitter shoes, progress to the prodigal son, and Peter’s tri –conversion called to “Feed my people.” I was separated from the Lord like Adam and Eve because of the original sin at birth. The concept of “ I will be your God, you will be my people” never dawned on me when I was a little girl in Taiwan. The Christian witnesses were not Chinese of black hair, black eyes with yellow skins. In my 15
  16. 16. teen years, like Naomi and the prodigal son, out of bitterness and rebelliousness I even made fun of the cross by adding an “ X” on the cross, which formed a star on the top of a Christmas tree I made for a school assignment. And I threw away a Bible that was given by a person I did not respect. However, I became a believer as a result of the touching by the Holy Spirit’s healing power. My suffering of depression for one-long-year was lifted. On one occasion in my early Christian walk, I was very angry while waiting for a friend who had promised to return my bike in an hour. However, after waiting two hours, I was too mad to read the Bible. When I tried to bow my head to calm down, I heard a gentle voice, “You waited for one hour, I had been waiting for you for over twenty years”. I am not a very patient person by nature. I was touched and overwhelmed by the everlasting love of God at that moment. I realized that I had been keeping Him waiting for so long and He is still so gentle and patient with me. Before my graduation from National Taiwan University, in order to display my gratitude to what the Lord had done in my life, I had a photo exhibition titled: “ The Bygone Years: My Testimony of Gratitude." The statement I put on the invitation cards for that Exhibition was Acts 17:26-27, “From one man he made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live. God did this so that men would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us.” 16
  17. 17. After I crossed the geographical boundaries in coming to the U.S., the healing process of my brokenness as a whole still remained vivid. I received the healing power and comfort from the Lord’s word, in the darkest hour of my isolation from February to June 1992. I asked God to give me His word, one verse a month. The Lord showed me His master plan for me through His Word. All I needed to do was to trust and to obey Him. It was good for me to be afflicted so that I might learn your decrees.( Ps.119:71) Record my lament; list my tears on your scroll— are they not in record? ( Ps. 56: 8.) May it be to me as you have said.(Lk. 1: 38) And who knows but that you have come to royal position for such a time as this?(Es. 4:14) But take your consecrated things and whatever you have vowed to give, and go to the place the Lord will choose.(Deut. 12:26) For I know the plans I have for you. . . plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and future.(Jer. 29:11) The Lord spoke to me tenderly “I advise you, O daughter, not to fret about your parents in your homeland far away. Your royal husband delights in your beauty. Reverence him, for he is your lord.” (Ps. 4:10-11) As the least one of all, for me to be in mission means to be “on the way.” I am glad I am on the way, but I know I have a long way to go, and He is able to help me to finish the destiny the mission He has assigned me. As soon as I started to study at Fuller, beginning a continual a time of healing prayer for childhood rejection, the image of a crown (like that of Queen Esther’s) has been very vivid for me. Paul said “We have become a spectacle to the world, to angels and to men.”(1 Co. 4:9b) And Mordecai said to Esther, “And who knows but that you have come to royal position for such a time as this?" (Est. 4:14b) As with to Queen Esther, the palace for her meant 17
  18. 18. fulfilling the Lord’s mission and her destiny. I hope one day that I, like Esther, will receive a crown. For me, it will be the Crown of Life from the Lord and I will lay it before the Throne in Heaven and the Lord will say to me, “ Well done” and join the heavenly chorus from all nations, all tribes and all languages singing in accord: “ Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was, and is, and is to come.” Conclusion From the tapestry of the Bible, in light of the definition of mission, the theme of Father–heart of God in healing is woven through the story of the least ones of all. From the story of Adam, the story of Naomi, the parable of the prodigal father, Perter’s tri-conversion, and my own pilgrimage journey, the eternal remains truth: for God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.(Jn. 3: 16) Once again, this shows a Father-heart of God in healing for all nations. 18
  19. 19. REFERENCE CITED Briscoe, Jill 1983 Jonah and the Worm. New Berlin, WI: Jilcoe/Hemp Flynn, Mike 1993 Inner Healing. Downers Grove. Ill: InterVarsity Press. Galot, Jean 1992 Abba, Father, We Long to See Your face. M. Angeline Bouchard, TRANS. Staten Island, New York: Alba House. Glasser, Arthur F. 1989 Kingdom and Mission. Pasadena : Fuller Theological Seminary School of World Mission. Joyner, Rick. 1996 The Final Quest. New Kensington: Whitaker House. 19
  20. 20. Newbigin, Lesslie 1978 The Open Secret: An Introduction to the Theology of Mission Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Nouwen, Henri J.M. n.d. The Livig Reminder: Service Prayer in Memory of Jesus Christ. Harper San Franciso: Harper Collins Publishers. Seamands, David A. 1985 Healing of Memories. Wheaten. Ill.: Victor Books, SP Publicatio, INC. Avoiding the performance Trap (used to be Healing Grace). Sittster, Gerald L. 1996 A Grace Disguised: How the Soul Grows Through Loss. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing Housing. Van Engen, Charles 1999 “Biblical Foundations of Mission” MT520, Class Syllabus.” Pasadena, CA: Fuller. Theological Seminary, School of World Mission. 20