South and Southeast Asia Taj Mahal, 1632–1647. Fig. 16-1.
South AsiaDates and Places:• 2600BCE to 1857CE• Indian subcontinentPeople:• Cultural diversity & religious tolerance, polytheism• Indus civilization• Buddhism, Hinduism (developed in later centuries BCE and early CE out of Vedic & Upanishad texts)• Buddha (figure who advocated ascetism as end to rebirth (samsara) and path to enlightenment) Mithuna reliefs, Vishvanatha Temple,• Islam (Mughal Dynasty) Khajuraho, ca. 1000. Fig. 16-14.
South AsiaThemes:• Deities of Buddhism and Hinduism• Scenes from the Mughal court• TemplesForms:• Stupas, temples• Idealized & stylized Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, ca. figures 1000. Fig. 16-13.• Hieratic scaling• Sensuality & sexuality
South Asia Malwiya minaret, Great Mosque, John HancockSamarra, Iraq, 848– Center, 852. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, Chicago, 1965- 68 Diagram and view, Great Stupa, Sanchi, third century BCE to first century CE. Fig. 16-4.
South Asia• Kushan Dynasty• Important Buddhist monastery• Stupa for relics of Buddha• Form based on burials (world mountain)• Three-dimensional mandala (sacred diagram of universe)• Yasti corresponds to axis of the earth (axis mundi)• Circumambulation to worship, enclosed space Diagram and view, Great Stupa, Sanchi, third century BCE to first century CE. Fig. 16-4.
Group ActivityGods, Goddesses & Gestures : Interpreting South & Southeast Asian Iconography
South Asia #1 Yakshi, Great Stupa, Sanchi, mid- first century BCE to early first century CE. Fig. 16-5.
South Asia #1• Kushan Dynasty• Yakshi (goddess personifying fertility and vegetation)• Holds onto mango tree branch• Places left foot on trunk (allows tree to flower)• Archetype of femininity later used to represent Maya, the Buddha’s mother, giving birth Yakshi, Great Stupa, Sanchi, mid-first century BCE to early first century CE. Fig. 16-5.
The Fertility Goddess Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between SaintsNude Woman (Venus of Praxiteles Aphrodite of Theodore and George,Willendorf) Knidos, ca. 350-340BCE icon, 7th century CE28,000 - 25,000 BCE Greek ByzantineWillendorf, Austria
South Asia #2Life and death of the Buddha (Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya & First Sermon at Sarnath), Gandhara, second century CE. Fig. 16-6.
South Asia #2• Kushan Dynasty• Stories from the life of Buddha (now represented as robed divine figure)• Early figural representation, narrative of path to enlightenment• Top: Bhumispharsha mudra – right hand touches earth as witness to enlightenment• Bottom: Abhaya mudra – right hand in blessing while preaching the Eightfold Path to nirvana in the Deer Park at Sarnath• Attributes: ushnisha (cranial bump), urna (dot between brows), halo (behind head), Wheel of Law, thin robe• Roman influence? (equestrian figures) Life and death of the Buddha, Gandhara, second century CE
South Asia #3 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, Sarnath, second half of fifth century. Fig. 16-7.
South Asia #3• Gupta Period• Standardization of Buddha’s image• Clinging robe, seated in lotus position, ushnisha, urna, halo• Eyes downcast in meditation, hands make Wheel-turning gesture (dharmachakra mudra)• Wheel of Law (teaching) at bottom (hieratic scaling)• Smooth surface• Indian version of idealized form• For temple, not stupa Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, Sarnath, second half of fifth century. Fig. 16-7.
South Asia#4 Dancing Shiva, rock- cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, 6th century CE, fig. 16-9
South Asia #4• Chaluykya dynasty• Development of Hindu stone sculpture & architecture• Hinduism also polytheistic, no prophet or founder• Relief cut out of cliff• Shiva (God of destruction & renewal) one of most important gods• Dances cosmic dance• Multiple limbs (18) refer to superhuman powers, perform different mudras• Matted hair piled on head• Rides bull (Nandi) & carries trident• Ganesha (elephant god) mimics Shiva• Hindu gods often part-man/part-animal Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, 6th century CE, fig. 16-9
SouthAsia -MughalEmpire BASAWAN andCHATAR MUNI, Akbar and the Elephant Hawai, Akbarnama,ca. 1590. Fig. 16-15.
South Asia• Mughal Empire (16th century)• Muslim prince Akbar• Story of life of prince (Akbarnama)• Court painting workshop (watercolor miniatures)• Book illustrations• Akbar tames wild elephant• Allegory of strength and good rule of prince• Form to communicate event’s chaos (collapse of bridge, capsized boats)• High horizon, intersecting BASAWAN and CHATAR MUNI, Akbar diagonals, depth, dramatic and the Elephant Hawai, gestures Akbarnama, ca. 1590. Fig. 16-15.
SouthAsia BICHITR, Jahangir Preferring a Suﬁ Shaykh to Kings, ca. 1615–1618. Fig. 16-16.
South Asia• Mughal Empire• Painted watercolor miniature• Famous artist (imperial workshop of Jahangir, Akbar’s son & successor)• Shows refined tastes & cosmopolitan court• European influences (Cupids inscribing throne with wish for enduring rule)• Seated on hourglass throne (sands of time )• Divine rule (Jahangir is haloed by sun and crescent moon)• Identifiable figures (painter at bottom holding miniature & gifts, signature on step stool)• King James I of England, Turkish sultan, Sufi mystic at top (at top of hierarchy beneath emperor) BICHITR, Jahangir Preferring a Suﬁ• Shaykh to Kings, ca. 1615–1618. Significance of spiritual power Fig. 16-16.
South Asia• Mughal Empire• Muslim monumental tomb (mausoleum) built by Shah Jahan (Jahangir’s son) for empress (Mumtaz Mahal)• Dome-on-cube, illusion of weightlessness (precedent in earlier Islamic tombs)• Iranian garden pavilion plan• Octagonal plan of tomb, Iranian niches (pointed arch), dome in crown shape (taj), four minarets• Proportional (width = height, dome height = façade height)• Interplay of light & dark• Throne of God above the gardens of paradise? Secrets of the Taj Mahal, National Geographic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0n9UgiUL7o Taj Mahal, 1632–1647. Fig. 16-1.
The Dome and the Pointed Arch Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey, 532–537 View, Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran, Byzantine 11th to 17th centuries, Islamic
Southeast AsiaDates and Places:• Beginning first millennium CE• Java, Cambodia, Thailand, MyanmarPeople:• Influence of trade with View, Borobudur, ca. 800. Java, Indonesia, Fig. 16-19. India• Buddhism, Hinduism
Southeast AsiaThemes:• Temples• DeitiesForms:• Stone construction• Regional taste Angkor Wat, first half of 12th century, Angkor, Cambodia Fig. 16-20.
Southeast Asia• Sukhothai kingdom (Thailand)• Developed the Walking #5 Buddha type (bronze)• Thai attributes: broad shoulders, narrow waist, clinging robe• Left foot forward, left hand raised in abhaya (do not fear) mudra, right arm hangs loosely• Flame shoots from head• Focus on supernatural beauty & perfection Walking Buddha, Sukhothai, 14th century. Fig. 16-21.