Europe and america, 1700 1800

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  • **What these movements shared was the belief that if man could be freed from the superstitions that bound him/her to a life of servitude (including false beliefs in biological determinism that separated the very wealthy and white from the poor and colored, false beliefs in religion that reinforced the fallacy that the “meek shall inherit the earth,” thereby discouraging them from making a better life for themselves, and the conditions that led to inequality among races and sexes) and by freeing them, they would be happy and good to themselves and others
  • Europe and america, 1700 1800

    1. 1. The 18th Century in Europe and America From Denis Diderot’s Encyclopedie, ca. 1750
    2. 2. Art of the Rococo
    3. 3. Rococo Dates and Places: • 1715 to 1780 • France and England People: • Aristocrats • Urban townhouses • Social intercourse, cultivation of good taste (tete-a-tete) Francois Boucher, Blonde Odalisque 1752, oil on canvas
    4. 4. Rococo Themes: • Fete galante • Leisure of the upper classes • Ornament Forms: • Small and delicate • Pastels • Feathery brushwork CLODION, Satyr Crowning a Bacchante, 1770. Fig. 11-5.
    5. 5. Dangerous Liaisons http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GBhKrwdqjo 1989 Directed by Stephen Frears
    6. 6. Rococo FRANCOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, early 18th century. Fig. 11-2.
    7. 7. Rococo • Interiors totally designed • Rocailles • Organic, playful, moving decoration • Romantic themes (cupids, etc) • Proper setting for entertaining guests • Salons – Women held considerable influence FRANCOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, early 18th century. Fig. 11-2.
    8. 8. Rococo ANTOINE WATTEAU, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717. Fig. 11-3.
    9. 9. Rococo • Fete galante • New category of painting • Color for decorative effect, Rubeniste • Light and airy • Elegant sophistication • Sensuality and sexuality • Allegory of romantic love (Aphrodite) & stages of courtship ANTOINE WATTEAU, Pilgrimage to Cythera, 1717. Fig. 11-3.
    10. 10. The Rococo in Contemporary Art http://video.pbs.org/video/1281770054/ Yinka Shonibare, The Swing (After Fragonard), 2001, installation Fragonard, The Swing, 1766, oil on canvas, fig.11-4
    11. 11. The Late 18th Century: The Enlightenment and Neoclassicism From the Religulous movie poster, 2008
    12. 12. The Enlightenment Dates and Places: • 1700-1800 • Western Europe People: • Replace faith with reason • Scientific, empirical approach • Rousseau (“noble savage”) • Positivism ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉELEBRUN, Self-Portrait, 1790. Fig. 11-8.
    13. 13. The Enlightenment Themes: • Nature and naturalness • Rejection of Rococo frivolity • Grand tour (pilgrimage to Italy) • Genre (humble daily life) • Satire of modern life & sentimental subjects Forms: • Empirical observation • Classicizing approach • Narrative clarity • “Grand Manner” in portraiture JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉON CHARDIN, Saying Grace, 1740. Fig. 11-7.
    14. 14. The Enlightenment JOSEPH WRIGHT, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery, ca. 1763– 1765. Fig. 11-6.
    15. 15. The Enlightenment • Illustrates interest in science and rationality • Industrial Revolution transforms Europe • Demonstration of mechanical solar system • Observers embody Enlightenment age JOSEPH WRIGHT, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery, ca. 1763–1765. Fig. 11-6.
    16. 16. The Enlightenment WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Fig. 11-9.
    17. 17. The Enlightenment • English painter and printmaker • Satire of modern life • Moralizing story of misbehaving upper class • Narrative sequence like theater • Comment on poor taste WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Fig. 11-9.
    18. 18. Neoclassicism Dates and Places: • Late 18th century • France, England, US People: • Admiration for antiquity • Harmony and rationality • Model of civilized society: civic virtue and self-sacrifice THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello, 1770–1806. Fig. 11-17. ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda, ca. 1550–1570.
    19. 19. Neoclassicism Themes: • Ancient history • Modern history • Portraits • Allegories Forms: • Classical forms • Balanced compositions • Idealized figures • Gender roles About Schmidt 2002 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Death of Marat, 1793. Fig. 11-16.
    20. 20. ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785
    21. 21. Neoclassicism JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Fig. 11-15.
    22. 22. Neoclassicism • Ancient Roman story • Allegory of French Revolution • Self-sacrifice • Pose and gesture communicate state of mind • Triangular composition • David celebrates perfect forms of Greeks JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Fig. 11-15.
    23. 23. David’s drawing of Marie Antoinette on her way to the Guillotine, 1793

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