Europe, 1400 - 1500


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Europe, 1400 - 1500

  1. 1. <ul><li>Madonna and Child with </li></ul><ul><li>Angels , Fra Filippo Lippi </li></ul><ul><li>1455, tempera on wood </li></ul><ul><li>fig. 8-26 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Europe, 1400 - 1500 <ul><li>Arguably the birth of the modern world and in many ways, informed the world we live in today </li></ul><ul><li>Became more urban, more literary, cosmopolitan </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth led to thriving middle class - bankers and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>This wealth acquired not only by inheritance, as in the hereditary aristocracy that existed in the middle ages, but by personal achievement—the idea of “self-made man” was born </li></ul><ul><li>With their money, these patrons supported scholarship and the arts resulting in an explosion of learning and creativity now called the “Renaissance” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Patron: the person or entity that pays an artist to produce individual artworks or employs an artist on a continuing basis (Gardner) </li></ul><ul><li>“ These things give me the greatest contentment and the greatest pleasure because they serve the glory of God, the honour of the city, and the commemoration of myself” </li></ul><ul><li> - Giovanni Rucellai, a Florentine merchant and major patron of the arts during the Italian Renaissance </li></ul>Palazzo Rucellai by Alberti, c.1450
  4. 4. Jay Pritzker Pavilion by Frank Gehry, Millennium Park, Chicago $200 million of park budget given by private patrons
  5. 5. Humanism – In the Renaissance , an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the exploration of individual potential and desire to excel, and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty (Gardner). Renaissance = rebirth
  6. 6. Naturalism – the style of painted or sculptured representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition (Gardner). Cimabue, c.1280 Mantegna, c.1455 Raphael, c.1514
  7. 7. Painting Materials Tempera – a technique of painting using pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue or casein; dries quickly so applied sparingly; usu. on wood panel Oil painting – a painting technique using oil-based pigments (popularized in early 15 th century Flanders, then Italy); dries slowly; usu on wood Fresco – painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet (in the latter, pigments are mixed with water and become bound to plaster); most pop. in Italy in mural form
  8. 8. Materials for Sculpture and Architecture Bronze - Any of various alloys of copper and tin in various proportions, sometimes with traces of other metals Marble - metamorphic rock formed by alteration of limestone or dolomite, often irregularly colored by impurities Limestone - a common sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium Carbonate used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime carbon dioxide and cement.
  9. 9. France, the duchy of Burgundy, and the Holy Roman Empire Bruges is capital of Flanders and economic center of Burgundy
  10. 10. Northern Europe <ul><li>Dates and Places : </li></ul><ul><li>1400 to 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Burgundy, Flanders, France and the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Bruges – thriving port city (active in wool trade, fine fabrics, banking) </li></ul><ul><li>People : </li></ul><ul><li>Artists flocked to Bruges to seek commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Pious and prosperous </li></ul><ul><li>Intense interest in visible and natural world </li></ul>CLAUS SLUTER, Well of Moses, 1395–1406. Fig. 8-2.
  11. 11. Northern Europe <ul><li>Themes : </li></ul><ul><li>Life of the Virgin Mary, Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Secular images, portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Disguised religious symbolism (iconography) </li></ul><ul><li>Forms : </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed renderings of surfaces and textures </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic figures and spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Oil paint for rich color, detail and luminosity </li></ul>ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin, ca. 1435–1440. Fig. 8-7.
  12. 12. Flanders ROBERT CAMPIN (Master of Flémalle), Mérode Altarpiece , ca. 1425–1428. Fig. 8-3.
  13. 13. Flanders <ul><li>Religious event (Annunciation) in contemporary Flemish home </li></ul><ul><li>Disguised symbolism (book, </li></ul><ul><li>extinguished candle, lilies, copper </li></ul><ul><li>basin, closed garden refer to Mary’s purity </li></ul><ul><li>and divine mission) </li></ul><ul><li>Donor portraits on left </li></ul><ul><li>(surname Inghelbrecht = “angel bringer”) </li></ul><ul><li>Private commission for household prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Triptych (3-panels) in oil </li></ul><ul><li>Titled floor, table, bench </li></ul>ROBERT CAMPIN (Master of Flémalle), Mérode Altarpiece , ca. 1425–1428. Fig. 8-3.
  14. 14. Flanders JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Fig. 8-1.
  15. 15. Flanders <ul><li>Secular portrait communicated religious values </li></ul><ul><li>Italian merchant home in Bruges; in Flemish bedchamber </li></ul><ul><li>Disguised symbolism (dog = fidelity, st.margaret finial = childbirth, oranges = fertility, candle = God) </li></ul><ul><li>Description of surfaces and reflections of light </li></ul><ul><li>Artist as witness ( signature and reflection in convex mirror) </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional gender roles </li></ul>JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434. Fig. 8-1.
  16. 16. Flanders ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Deposition, ca. 1435, 7’x8’ Fig. 8-6.
  17. 17. Flanders <ul><li>Rogier asst. to Campin </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic composition with action and drama </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive composition through movement </li></ul><ul><li>Commission for guild </li></ul><ul><li>(see crossbow symbol in tracery) </li></ul><ul><li>Known for emotional expressiveness, sorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed space; resembles relief carving or tableau vivant </li></ul>ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Deposition, ca. 1435. Fig. 8-6.
  18. 18. France Jean Fouquet, Melun Diptych (right panel ), c.1450, oil on wood, fig. 8-10 <ul><li>French dukes significant art patrons </li></ul><ul><li>Private devotional images also popular in France </li></ul><ul><li>Patrons often depicted, but outside of central sacred scene (in left panel, not shown) </li></ul><ul><li>Oil on wood for luminous color </li></ul>Model for Mary was the late mistress of Charles VII
  19. 19. France <ul><li>Illumination for Book of Hours (collection of prayers and calendar) for private patron </li></ul><ul><li>Illusionistic treatment of space (some Gothic conventions remain) </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury item (blue and gold pigments expensive) </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes of daily life among nobility and peasantry; </li></ul><ul><li>reaffirms beneficence and sophistication of the patron, the duke of Berry </li></ul>LIMBOURG BROTHERS, Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Fig. 8-9. Just happily toiling away for my lord
  20. 20. Holy Roman Empire MARTIN SCHONGAUER, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons, ca. 1480–1490. Fig. 8-12. <ul><li>Germany is center </li></ul><ul><li>Wood/printmaking/artists’ </li></ul><ul><li>books popular media </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic conventions and </li></ul><ul><li>subject matter linger </li></ul><ul><li>Gutenberg invents movable </li></ul><ul><li>type around 1450 and printing </li></ul><ul><li>press begins </li></ul>
  21. 21. Italy & the Birth of the “Renaissance Man” <ul><li>Dates and Places : </li></ul><ul><li>1400-1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Independent city-states </li></ul><ul><li>on the Italian peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent wars, bloody </li></ul><ul><li>coups and power struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Thriving economy (bankers, merchants) & trade with Flanders, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>Function of Art: </li></ul><ul><li>To reflect humanism & the revival of classical learning </li></ul><ul><li>To show refined taste of patron </li></ul><ul><li>As political propaganda – to foster civic pride </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Medici – “Godfathers of the Renaissance” Lorenzo de’ Medici by Vasari ca. 1520 <ul><li>Powerful banking family </li></ul><ul><li>in Florence (double-entry </li></ul><ul><li>bookkeeping) </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous art patrons </li></ul><ul><li>in Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Established humanist </li></ul><ul><li>academy for artists, </li></ul><ul><li>architects, scientists and </li></ul><ul><li>philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>Produced three Popes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Italy – “The Rationalization of Sight” <ul><li>Themes : </li></ul><ul><li>Life of Christ and Virgin </li></ul><ul><li>Secular life </li></ul><ul><li>Classical and Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Portraiture </li></ul><ul><li>Forms : </li></ul><ul><li>Linear and aerial perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Classical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Optical naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Window onto the world </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative clarity </li></ul>PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Flagellation of Christ, ca. 1455–1465. Fig. 8-35.
  24. 24. Italy <ul><li>Many competitions for </li></ul><ul><li>civic art commissions </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous held in </li></ul><ul><li>1401 – wool merchants </li></ul><ul><li>guild invites artists to </li></ul><ul><li>submit relief panels </li></ul><ul><li>depicting “Sacrifice of </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac” </li></ul><ul><li>Subject as allegory </li></ul><ul><li>Winner would design </li></ul><ul><li>east doors of baptistery </li></ul><ul><li>facing Florence Cathedral </li></ul>
  25. 25. Filipppo Brunelleschi’s Sacrifice Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Sacrifice Two Finalists ( both in early 20s)
  26. 26. Group Activity <ul><li>Who won the competition and why? Discuss both formal design and use of materials. </li></ul><ul><li>What does the competition and its outcome teach us about popular taste in the 15 th century and Renaissance aesthetics? </li></ul><ul><li>Which panel do you prefer? Who should have won? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Filipppo Brunelleschi’s Sacrifice Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Sacrifice <ul><li>Gothic drama and heightened emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Caught in mid-action </li></ul><ul><li>Crowded quatrefoil frame </li></ul><ul><li>Several cast bronze pieces (disjointed) </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally restrained, graceful movement </li></ul><ul><li>Classical male nude (Isaac) on Roman- </li></ul><ul><li>inspired altar (acanthus frieze) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in spatial illusion (rocky landscape) </li></ul><ul><li>Two cast bronze pieces (cohesive) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Renaissance Perspectival Systems One-point linear perspective Brunelleschi’s Experiment, 1413 Brunelleschi credited with rediscovery of principles of perspective drawing! Theorist Alberti codified Brun.’s ideas in his seminal texts On Painting , On Architecture and On Sculpture , which influenced a generation of Italian artists and architects!
  29. 29. Mathematical Truth and Formal Beauty in Italian Ren. Art MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, ca. 1424–1427. Fig. 8-23. Masaccio = “Ugly Tom”! (1401-28)
  30. 30. Italy - Florence <ul><li>Fresco in church, donor portraits </li></ul><ul><li>Applies linear perspective based on location of viewer’s eye (overall unity & harmony) </li></ul><ul><li>Illusionistic extension of viewer’s space ( trompe l’oeil ) </li></ul><ul><li>Classical architectural vocabulary (coffered barrel vault, corinthian capitals, pilasters) </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical symbolism created by implied shapes (triangle = Holy Trinity) </li></ul>MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, ca. 1424–1427. Fig. 8-23. 5 ft empire-eye-magic-illusion-trinity-masaccio-part-2 “ I was once what you are and what I am you will become ”
  31. 31. Italy & The Return of the Nude Battle of the Ten Nudes by Pollaiuolo, 1465, engraving, fig. 8-28
  32. 32. Italy - Florence <ul><li>Donatello (along with Brunelleschi) studied classical art and architecture recently excavated in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>First nude sculpture since antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Classical principles applied to Christian subject </li></ul><ul><li>Civic symbol of Florentine strength and independence </li></ul><ul><li>Private patron (Medici) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensuous contrapposto for calm hero </li></ul><ul><li>Delight in youthful and eroticized male beauty </li></ul>DONATELLO, David, ca. 1440–1460. bronze, Fig. 8-19.
  33. 33. Sally Mann, Popsicle Drips, 1985
  34. 34. Italy - Florence SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1484–1486. Fig. 8-27.
  35. 35. Italy <ul><li>Like Donatello, </li></ul><ul><li>Botticelli celebrated </li></ul><ul><li>sensuous beauty in art </li></ul><ul><li>revival of female nude </li></ul><ul><li>Master of line – interested more in linear details and surface decoration than rational spatial ordering </li></ul><ul><li>Lyrical and courtly style </li></ul><ul><li>Based on poem by humanist inspired by Greek myth </li></ul><ul><li>Fully embraced pagan subject at risk of censure </li></ul><ul><li>Created for Medici (Lorenzo) </li></ul><ul><li>Tempera on canvas (matte) </li></ul>SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1484–1486. Fig. 8-27. Medici Venus inspired by Praxiteles 1 st century BCE Greek Zephyrus & Chloris Pomona on Cyprus V
  36. 36. Italian Renaissance Architecture Florence Cathedral Dome Brunelleschi, 1420-1436 Pantheon Rome 2 nd century CE 375’ high Double shell 140’ crossing
  37. 37. Italy LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1456–1470. Fig. 8-33. pediment scroll pilasters arcade
  38. 38. Italy - Florence <ul><li>Art and architectural theorist ( On Painting, On Sculpture and On the Art </li></ul><ul><li>of Building ) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied ancient Roman arch. treatise of Vitruvius </li></ul><ul><li>His treatise presents rules of Renaissance arch. </li></ul><ul><li>Façade applies classical elements to Gothic building </li></ul><ul><li>Temple frontal, scrolls </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional relationships (1:1, 1:2, e.g.) to achieve beauty and harmony </li></ul>LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1456–1470. Fig. 8-33.
  39. 39. <ul><li>Gonzaga family ruled princely court in Mantua </li></ul><ul><li>Ceiling fresco for the Camera degli Sposi (Room of the Newlyweds) in the Duke’s palace </li></ul><ul><li>Entire “painted room” took nearly 9 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts activities of courtly life </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Trompe l’oeil </li></ul><ul><li>(to fool the eye) and di sotto in su </li></ul><ul><li>(from below upward) </li></ul>Italy - Mantua Andrea Mantegna, ceiling, Camera Picta, 1465-74 An attribute of Juno who oversees lawful marriages Extreme foreshortening