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Laura Ritchie Keynote: August 2019, Brazil


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Keynote delivered at the III Seminário Internacional Teoria Social Cognitiva em Debate, Campinas, Brazil

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Laura Ritchie Keynote: August 2019, Brazil

  1. 1. Self-efficacy in Higher Education Professor Laura Ritchie
  2. 2. Bandura (1977) Initial investigations • Studies of ophidiophobia fear of snakes • Presented with an experience • Small numbers • Confirm strength of influences Image CC-BY by DVIDSHUB ‘A person’s beliefs about their capabilities to accomplish a specific, criterial task’
  3. 3. Self-efficacy Influenced by: 1. Mastery experiences 2. Vicarious experiences 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Physiological symptoms Image CC BY by James Lee
  4. 4. Influential Scales: Schwarzer & Jerusalem (1979) general self-efficacy scale • No validation study • 10 items • Not task-specific Sherer & Maddux (1982) general self-efficacy scale • Validation study • 17 items • For use in academic settings • Still general… Image CC BY by Trending Topics 2019
  5. 5. Self-efficacy PerformanceLearning Schunk, D. (1996). Self-efficacy for learning and performance. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. April, New York. Suggestion of division of TYPES of self-efficacy (Schunk, 1996): Important theoretical shift:
  6. 6. Self-efficacy relates to performance in music as it does in other academic contexts Self-efficacy assessed as a *general* construct, with this single question “I have fully mastered the requirements for today’s examination.” (p.45) Self-efficacy in music: McCormick & McPherson (2003) Image CC BY by Marco Verch Professional
  7. 7. Self-efficacy provided the strongest direct path to performance outcomes Self-efficacy still assessed as a *general* construct, with a single question for each task. Self-efficacy in music: McPherson & McCormick (2006)
  8. 8. Guidance on measuring Self-efficacy: Bong, M. (2006). Asking the right questions. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds) Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp.287–305). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  9. 9. Self-Efficacy in Higher Education: Qualities of Self-Efficacious People: • Attainments • Perseverance • Resilience • EmployabilityImage CC BY-SA by Chris Gilmore
  10. 10. Demonstrating links with achievement Image CC By by misterjude
  11. 11. Performance Study: A Self-Efficacy Snapshot Self-efficacy as a predictor of quality? • Assessment scores? • Experience? • Practice time? University students (N=125) Conservatoire students (N=30)
  12. 12. As predictor of awarded mark 9.5% University Students As predictor of own mark 10.5% Self-efficacy:
  13. 13. As predictor of awarded mark 17.3% Conservatoire Students: As predictor of own mark 25.3% Self-efficacy:
  14. 14. Practicing: University vs. Conservatoire Students Practice hours per week Voice Piano Strings Brass Woodwind Guitar All University 4.17 8.31 5.01 4.32 4.98 5.77 5.49 Conservatoire 7 27.57 20.57 10 13.2 18.67 17.47
  15. 15. Total predictors of awarded mark Self-efficacy 17.3% Practicing per week 15.9% Conservatoire Predictors:
  16. 16. 1. Self-efficacy predicts performance quality. 2. Self-efficacy is more predictive for those with greater expertise. 3. Practicing (time devoted to the task) was a secondary predictor, but requires considered examination. Numbers of minutes are not enough.
  17. 17. Learning: Skills and Transferability? Self-efficacy for Learning is about belief in capabilities for acquiring new skills, and the processes associated with understanding and building new methods and information into a current practice.Image CC BY-SA by Broo_am
  18. 18. Image CC BY NC-ND by Marco Martinelli
  19. 19. Intervention: 22 Participants divided into groups (4) • Weekly music lessons • Controlling for factors: • Same Teacher, Room, Content (lesson plan) Tasks: Control: Listen to music (placebo) Experimental: Complete SRL worksheet Image CC-BY-SA by kiera.chan
  20. 20. 792.5 minutes 290 minutes Participation Results: ImageCCBybyMarcinKrawczyk
  21. 21. Results: Self-efficacy for Learning At outset: Placebo group: Higher Self-efficacy for Learning (Median = 68.5, IQR = 9.75) Intervention group: (Median = 56, IQR = 13.5) Z = 2.006, p = 0.045, r = 0.55 No significant differences in self-efficacy for learning or in performance achievement between groups at end of study Image CC BY-ND by Søren Øxenhave
  22. 22. Importance of building Self-Efficacy 1. Mastery experiences 2. Vicarious experiences 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Physiological symptoms Image CC BY-SA by Mike
  23. 23. Task specific methods within education: Feedback Student Agency Modelling Reflection
  24. 24. Modelling Involves Observational Learning Image CC BY By Gareth EWilliams
  25. 25. Four Components: Modelling 1. Attention 2. Retention3. Production 4. Motivation
  26. 26. Mastery model Image CC-BY-NC by Joseph_Lin
  27. 27. Coping Model Image CC BY US Army Africa
  28. 28. Self-Model Image CC-BY by Philippe Put
  29. 29. Self-efficacy & Related Constructs: Wellbeing Resilience Self- efficacy
  30. 30. Professional Resilience Study 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 Beginning Midpoint End of year Self-efficacy over time Self-efficacy for Learning Self-efficacy for Performing
  31. 31. Empirical results: Wellbeing Resilience Self- efficacy Self-efficacy for Learning + Wellbeing predicted Resilience [β = .457, t(43) = 4.366, p < .01] Explaining 51.8% of the variance in Resilience: [R2 = .518, F (2, 43) = 23.146, p < .001]
  32. 32. Student testimonials: I definitely think my confidence in performing has improved, and has made me a lot more comfortable and confident with myself. I never used to have any confidence and I was so scared of being judged but now I’ve just accepted myself and I just present myself a lot more positively. I’ve became more aware of my mindset and how it’s stopping me from doing a lot of things I want to do. I’ve become more comfortable in social situations, it’s definitely helped me confidence-wise with dealing with people and conflict with people, which has just been useful. I’ve definitely become aware about the way I think about myself and becoming more positive about the way I think, like: I can do this. I should push myself to do that. Image CC-0 by gnuc
  33. 33. Implications for teachers and learners Fostering self-efficacy Direct interventions must be carefully considered Can you ‘make’ someone believe? Must be done by the person – cannot be done accidentally, done to you Image CC BY-SA by Wills Lam
  34. 34. Relevance for Employability Meaningful skills: • Understanding • Skills • Efficacy beliefs • Metacognition (Knight & York, 2004) Image CC BY-SA by anonymous09210716
  35. 35. Professor Laura Ritchie #YesICan