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Brazil lecture questionnaire development

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I presented this lecture on Questionnaire Development to the graduate students of Psychology at the University of São Francisco, Campinas, Brazil on Monday, 19, August, 2019. I takes you through the process I followed to develop questionnaires for Self-efficacy for Learning and for Performing in Music.

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Brazil lecture questionnaire development

  1. 1. Musical Self-efficacy Assessment and Measurement Professor Laura Ritchie
  2. 2. Bandura (1977) Initial investigations • Studies of ophidiophobia fear of snakes • Presented with an experience • Small numbers • Confirm strength of influences Image CC-BY by DVIDSHUB ‘A person’s beliefs about their capabilities to accomplish a specific, criterial task’
  3. 3. Influential Scales: Schwarzer & Jerusalem (1979) general self-efficacy scale • No validation study • 10 items • Not task-specific Sherer & Maddux (1982) general self-efficacy scale • Validation study • 17 items • For use in academic settings • Still general… Image CC BY by Trending Topics 2019
  4. 4. Self-efficacy PerformanceLearning Schunk, D. (1996). Self-efficacy for learning and performance. In Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. April, New York. Suggestion of division of TYPES of self-efficacy (Schunk, 1996): Important theoretical shift:
  5. 5. • Self-efficacy relates to performance in music as it does in other academic contexts • Self-efficacy assessed as a *general* construct, with this single question • “I have fully mastered the requirements for today’s examination.” (p.45) Self-efficacy in music: McCormick & McPherson (2003) Image CC BY by Marco Verch Professional
  6. 6. • Self-efficacy provided the strongest direct path to performance outcomes • Self-efficacy still assessed as a *general* construct, with a single question for each task. Self-efficacy in music: McPherson & McCormick (2006)
  7. 7. Guidance on Measuring Self-efficacy: Bong, M. (2006). Asking the right questions. In F. Pajares & T. C. Urdan (Eds) Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp.287–305). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. “To accurately assess these beliefs means to envisage and reflect all necessary competencies and situational constraints in the assessment instrument. Context-specific self-efficacy measurement thus requires that important features of tasks and situations that could wield tangible influence on performance outcomes be clearly spelled out in the items (Bandura, 1997). This helps respondents to evaluate their self- efficacy more accurately, which consequently predicts their ensuing thought patterns, emotional reactions, and performance quality with increased precision (Mischel, 1977).”
  8. 8. Sherer General Scale Items
  9. 9. Musical Self-efficacy Questionnaires: Learning: Skill acquisition “I am confident that I can successfully learn the music for this performance.” Performing: Skill use / delivery “I am confident that I can give a successful performance.” Ensuring specificity and correspondence with criterial tasks to achieve specific outcomes
  10. 10. Specificity
  11. 11. Reliability: Cronbach Alpha
  12. 12. Self-efficacy for Musical Learning
  13. 13. Self-efficacy for Musical Performing
  14. 14. Factor Analysis Scree plots showing factor loadings:
  15. 15. Distinct Correlations
  16. 16. Correlations with skills
  17. 17. Different populations
  18. 18. Adapting questionnaires Understanding: • The task • The setting • Requisite skills • External influences • Physical processes • Cognitive processes Image CC BY by Barb Ignatious
  19. 19. Self-efficacy for Musical Learning (children’s version) Note: Items 5, 8, and 10 are reverse coded
  20. 20. Children’s Self-efficacy for Learning and…
  21. 21. Self-efficacy for Musical Performing (children’s version) Note: Items 3, 4, and 6 are reverse coded.
  22. 22. Tasks, Measurement, & Understanding: Is performing the same in Sport and Music? Image CC BY-ND by Eric Wong Image CC BY-NC-ND by eye/see
  23. 23. Music to Sport: very small changes
  24. 24. Self-efficacy for Performing (Sport) Skills: Correlations with both Self-efficacy for performing in both Sport and Music: • Technical skill • Nuance in interpretation • Managing performance fears • Motivation and drive to excel • Managing stress • Working with others Reliability: The Self-efficacy for Performing in Sport questionnaire was found to be reliable (Cronbach α=.79). Factor analysis: Confirmed the structure of the Self-efficacy for Musical Performing questionnaire found in original validation study.
  25. 25. Self-efficacy for learning Did not work Not reliable: (Cronbach α=.52) Demonstrating the need for • A full understanding of a task’s requisite skills when choosing to adapt an established questionnaire • Adequate testing to ensure reliability and appropriateness to each setting. Self-efficacy for Learning in Sport questionnaire
  26. 26. Adapting Self-efficacy Questionnaires Back to the construct… Influenced by: 1. Mastery experiences 2. Vicarious experiences 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Physiological symptoms Image CC BY by James Lee
  27. 27. Measurement Understanding & Application Image CC BY by ʎɔ.
  28. 28. Consider suitability: Task Setting Skills External influences Physical processes Cognitive processes Image CC-BY by Eugene Anghel
  29. 29. Professor Laura Ritchie l.ritchie@chi.ac.uk #YesICan

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