Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Understanding Facilitation

159 views

Published on

For LTEC 4000: Module 8 - Facilitation Strategies, Tools, and Overview

Reference:
Bens, I. (2012). Facilitating with ease! Core skills for facilitators, team leaders and members, managers, consultants, and trainers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (ISBN: 9781118107744) Course syllabus Reference: (Bens)

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Understanding Facilitation

  1. 1. Module 8: Understanding Facilitation
  2. 2. Facilitation Foundation • Facilitation is a way of providing leadership without “taking the reins” • As a facilitator, your job is to get others to assume responsibility and to take the lead.
  3. 3. Facilitation Foundation: • Rather than being a player, a facilitator acts more like a referee. • You watch the action, more than participate in it. • You control which activities happen. • You “keep your finger on the pulse” and know when to move on or wrap things up. • Most important, you help members define and reach their goals.
  4. 4. FACILITATORS CONTRIBUTE BY… • Helping the group define its overall goal, as well as its specific objective(s) • Helping individuals assess their needs and create plans to meet them • Providing processes that help people use their time efficiently • Guiding group discussion to keep it on track • Making accurate notes that reflect the ideas of members (paraphrase) • Helping the group to work more effectively
  5. 5. • Making sure that people’s assumptions are surfaced and tested • Supporting people in assessing their current skills, as well as building new skills • Using consensus to help a group make decisions that take all members’ opinions into account
  6. 6. • Providing feedback to the group, so that they can assess their progress and make adjustments • Managing conflict using a collaborative approach • Helping the group communicate effectively
  7. 7. Facilitators make their contribution by: • Helping the group access resources from inside and outside of the group • Creating an environment in which members enjoy a positive, growing experience • Fostering leadership in others by sharing the leadership role
  8. 8. To be a facilitator, you must firmly believe that: • People are intelligent, capable and want to do the right thing • Groups can make better decisions than any one person can make alone • “Two heads are better than one” • Everyone’s opinion is of equal value, regardless of rank or position • People are more committed to the ideas and plans that they have helped to create
  9. 9. To be a facilitator, you must firmly believe that: • Participants can and will act responsibly and assume accountability for decisions • Groups can manage their own conflicts, behaviors and relationships if they are given the right tools and direction • The facilitation process, if well designed and effectively applied, can be trusted to achieve results
  10. 10. Facilitation Definitions
  11. 11. A facilitator is… • One who contributes structure and process to interactions so groups are able to function effectively and all individuals are encouraged to contribute/participate; and • A helper and enabler whose goal is to support others as they develop their full potential.
  12. 12. A process is… • The structure, framework, methods and tools used in interactions.
  13. 13. An intervention is: • An action or set of actions that aims to improve the functioning of a group.
  14. 14. A group is: • A collection of individuals who come together to share information, coordinate their efforts, or achieve a task.
  15. 15. A team is: • A group of individuals who are committed to achieving a common goal, who support each other, who fully utilize member resources, and who have closely linked roles.
  16. 16. Facilitation Tools: 14 Core Practices
  17. 17. Stay neutral on content – Your job is to focus on the process role and avoid the temptation of offering opinions about the topic under discussion. – You should use questions and suggestions to offer ideas that spring to mind, but never impose opinions on the group.
  18. 18. Listen actively – Look people in the eye – Use attentive body language – Paraphrase what people say – Summarize key ideas
  19. 19. Use eye contact – While people are speaking – When paraphrasing what they have just said – When summarizing their key ideas – Let people know they can speak next – Prompt the quiet ones in the crowd to participate
  20. 20. Ask questions – This is the most important tool you possess – Questions test assumptions, invite participation, gather information and probe for hidden points. – Effective questioning allows you to delve past the symptoms and get at the “root cause”.
  21. 21. Paraphrase to clarify – This involves repeating what people say to: • make sure they know they are being heard • let others hear their points a second time • clarify key ideas – “Are you saying…?” – “Am I understanding you to mean…?”
  22. 22. Synthesize ideas – Don’t just record individual ideas of participants. – Instead, get people to comment and build on each other’s thoughts to ensure that the ideas recorded represent collective thinking. – This builds consensus and commitment. – “Alice, what would you add to Jeff’s comments?”
  23. 23. Stay on track – Set time guidelines for each discussion – Appoint a time keeper inside the group to call out milestones. – Point out the digression if discussion has veered off topic. – “Park” all off-topic comments and suggestions on a separate “Parking Lot” sheet posted on a nearby wall to be dealt with later.
  24. 24. Give and receive feedback – Periodically “hold up a mirror” to help the group “see” it6self so it can make corrections. • “Only two people are involved in this discussion, while others are sitting silently. How can we shift the leadership so everyone will contribute?” – Ask for and accept feedback about the facilitation. • “Are we making progress?” • “How’s the pace?” • “What can I do to be more effective?”
  25. 25. Test assumptions – You need to bring the assumptions people are operating under out into the open and clarify them, so that they are clearly understood by everyone. – These assumptions may even need to be challenged before a group can explore new ground. • “John, on what basis are you making the comment that Sarah’s idea is too narrow to be considered an option?”
  26. 26. Collect ideas – Keep track of both emerging ideas and final decisions. – Make clear and accurate summaries on a flipchart, writing board, or electric board so everyone can see the notes. – Notes should be brief and concise. – They must always reflect what the participants said, rather than your interpretation of what they said.
  27. 27. Summarize clearly – A great facilitator listens attentively to everything that is said, and then offers concise and timely summaries. – Summarize when you want to revive a discussion that has ground to a halt or to end a discussion when things seem to be wrapping up.
  28. 28. Redirect – It is your responsibility to let the group members know when they are “off track”. – They can then decide to pursue the sidetrack, or stop their current discussion and get back to the agenda. • “We are now discussing something that is not on the agenda. What does the group want to do?”
  29. 29. Hold questions/ideas – At every session, tape a flip chart sheet to a wall to record all side track items. – Later, these items can be reviewed for inclusion in a future agenda. – “Parking lot” sheets let you capture ideas that may be important later, while still staying on track.
  30. 30. Offer room for errors – Most people are nervous enough about writing on flip charts/boards without having to worry that they are spelling every word right. – You will relax everyone by drawing a “spell- check button” at the top right corner of every flip sheet. – Tell participants they can spell “creatively”, since pressing the spell-check button automatically eliminates all errors.

×