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Websites 101

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Websites 101

  1. 1. Websites 101 What you didn’t know that you didn’t know. Websites for Dummies
  2. 2. Your Instructor Laura Hartwig is a WordPress Website Developer and Trainer. She ran WordPress Westchester for 3 years in NY. She has presented at WordCamps in NY, CT, and NC, she uses her skills to create powerful, flexible, easy-to-use websites for small businesses. She is also the author of Follow this presentation at
  3. 3. What we’ll cover Vocabulary What you need to start a website SEO Security Follow along: Tip SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization. This is about how you rank on Google, Bing, etc.
  4. 4. Vocabulary This first set of vocabulary will help you understand tech support and your developer.
  5. 5. PC - Personal computer. Often referred to as a desktop. This computer has a CPU, keyboard, mouse and screen. Mac - An Apple computer. Can be a desktop or a laptop. Laptop - (notebook) portable computers that consist of a screen & keyboard Tablet - A portable computer that uses a touchscreen as the primary input device instead of a keyboard and/or mouse. Computers
  6. 6. Hardware - the collection of physical parts of a computer system. This includes the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It also includes all the parts inside the computer case, such as the hard disk drive, motherboard, video card, and many others. Software - Computer programs, a generic term used to refer to applications, scripts and programs that run on a device. Hardware/Software
  7. 7. Operating System (OS)-software that communicates with the hardware and allows other programs to run. The most common are Microsoft Windows, Apple macOS, Google’s Andriod OS, and Linux. Software
  8. 8. Browser - is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web (www) , including webpages, images, video and other files. The main browsers are Chrome, Firefox, Edge (used to be Explorer), Safari Software
  9. 9. Search Engine - a service that allows Internet users to search for content via the World Wide Web (WWW). A user enters keywords or key phrases into a search engine and receives a list of Web content results in the form of websites, images, videos or other online data. You use browsers to access search engines. Software
  10. 10. Screen size (y) VS Window size (x) Screen size is the size of your monitor screen Window size is the size of your browser.
  11. 11. Parts of the Browser Window Address Bar (URL) where you can view domain name. Refresh button (Reload the page) Tools (looks different now) this is where you can clear your cookies and history
  12. 12. Caching Your computer and search engine have a caching system that stores images and webpages you have seen in the past so that you can view them more quickly. Your modem can also cache.
  13. 13. Router & Modem The main difference between the two devices is that a modem lets you connect to the internet, while a router distributes that connection to different devices. A modem is your gateway to the web, while a router is a central hub for your devices.
  14. 14. Private Browsing This can be helpful if you’ve made changes to your site but you don’t see them. Private browsers don’t cache pages like regular browsers do, but keep in mind there could be other caches. Be sure to clear cache as well by refreshing
  15. 15. Cookies
  16. 16. IP Address is a unique string of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.
  17. 17. Domain name A domain name (or URL Uniform Resource Locator) is a unique name that identifies a website. Each website has a domain name that serves as an address, which is used to access the website DNS (Domain Name System) The Internet's system for converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses. For example, when a Web address (URL) is typed into a browser, DNS servers return the IP address of the Web server associated with that name. *MX records for your email will be a part of this.
  18. 18. Domain name Each page of your website will have a unique URL . So, if your domain name is Your contact page might be .com is a designator. Other organization type designators you may have seen include: .com = Commercial, .gov = Government and .org = Organization, .edu=Educational institution I would recommend that you get a .com domain name.
  19. 19. Sub Domain Indicates a site within a site So, if your domain name is Your contact page might be Sub domains are usually free although the extra hosting required could cost extra. Parked Domains are basically an alias domain name to your primary domain, it will be pointing to the same webpages as your primary domain is pointing to
  20. 20. HTTP vs HTTPS hypertext transfer protocol secure This means that information sent across this connect are encrypted and secure. A Secure Sockets Layer certificate (SSL certificate) is a small data file installed on a Web server that allows for a secure connection between the server and a Web browser. You’ll need to purchase or get one of these from your hosting company. Better hosting companies will give them to you free. You will need this for SEO, security, and it is required if you will be selling anything on your site.
  21. 21. What you will need to create a website: Domain name Hosting Tip Siteground is a great host for beginner users.
  22. 22. Hosting Servers Hosting servers are most often used for hosting Web sites but can also be used for hosting files, images, games and similar content. They are hardware owned by the hosting company with software on them. Basically, they are like really big CPU’s.
  23. 23. Website Hosting Shared Hosting - the cheapest option. Your files are stored on the same server with other people’s files. VPS - (Virtual Private Server) - you have dedicated amounts of RAM available to you at any time and can have software running you need. Dedicated Server - you have the entire server.
  24. 24. Cloud Hosting Cloud hosting simply means that copies of your files are stored across several different servers so that if one goes down, there are backups on others, so you won’t lose your data or your access.
  25. 25. Costs A domain name usually costs about $10-$15/year unless you want a highly sought after name. Usually you can get the name of your business with no problem, or just add “sc” at the end or some version of your name. Hosting can cost anywhere from $3/month up to almost unlimited. You can get decent hosting for $10-$15/month. Remember that you get what you pay for. Higher prices usually include faster server speeds, backups, more storage space and better support.
  26. 26. Siteground Hosting
  27. 27. Hosting Vocabulary Disk Space or Web Space - how much space (storage capacity) you are allowed to use on the server. CMS (Content Management System) - a software application that can be used to manage the creation and modification of digital content. Like WordPress for example. Gives you a way to easily manage your website. Database -Dynamic websites use a database to store information. Databases are kinda like big excel files. Sometimes called a MySQL database. CDN - (Content Delivery Network) - an intermediary for your website that can speed up your site and protect your site from different attacks including DoS (denial-of-service). One common (and free for smaller sites) CDN is Backups - Good hosting companies will do daily backups of your site so if anything happens to your site, you can go back to a previous version of your site. Staging - is a nice bonus. This allows you to create a copy of your site so you can test out changes to your site before the changes go live. This is important when you are doing large updates.
  28. 28. Data Transfer or Bandwidth Data Transfer or Bandwidth - refers to the total amount of bytes of data a server transfers to a particular website in a given period of time. Most hosting plans measure the amount of data transferred across a server over a 30 day or one month period. In regards to your website, the less bandwidth your web server provides, the slower the server transfers data when visitors arrive at your website and the more time it takes visitors to load your website, regardless of their Internet connection speed. A prime example of when bandwidth would directly affect speed is when Internet surfers download songs, videos or any file across the Internet. The greater the bandwidth, the faster a given file will transfer across the network at any given time. Simply stated, larger bandwidth means files download faster. Keeping file sizes small is the main way website owners can control their bandwidth usage. Using large images on a website is the main way most people go over their bandwidth limit. It is important that website owners use images and file types that consume the least amount of bandwidth to ensure that their site loads quickly and seamlessly for website visitors. Staying away from bandwidth hogs like flash files, song files and streamed video is another great way to keep bandwidth consumption to a minimum.
  29. 29. Free Websites There are some hosting companies like that offer “free” website hosting, but keep in mind that the resources are very limited. You will probably have ads on your site. What you can do with your site is limited. Also, beware of ads for free “website builders”, which is not the same as free hosting. Website builders help you create a website, but you still have to pay for hosting and domain name.
  30. 30. Email Use if possible. It looks more professional and reduces some send problems because you are less likely to be considered spam. I would recommend using an email client like gmail (you can pay to set it up with your domain name rather than In general, the functionality is much better and there are higher limits. Also, if you change hosting companies, you can don’t have to transfer your emails, which can be somewhat complicated. However, if you don’t plan to use your email much, you can usually get email as a free add-on to your hosting account. If you do transfer your site or have to make any changes to your DNS, be sure that your email MX settings are correct.
  31. 31. vs
  32. 32. Tip Make sure you install a SSL certificate first.
  33. 33. Don’t Don’t leave your username as “admin” Do Always choose https (meaning you have a SSL certificate) when possible.
  34. 34. File Types Image file types: .jpg, .gif, .png Document file types: .pdf, .docx, .pptx, .xls Video file types: .webm, .mpg, .ogg, .mp4, .avi, .mov These are not the only types, but the most common.
  35. 35. PDFs First, beware of using Word Docs if someone might take your document an alter it. In general, it’s better to use PDFs. When updating a document, like menus, for example, on your website, I recommend you delete the old file and name the new file the same so you don't’ have to worry about broken links or old information that might confuse people. If you have a choice, always choose text over PDFs, or give both options. Text is much easier to read, especially on mobile, and Google cannot “read” PDFs, so it’s better for search and SEO.
  36. 36. File Sizes File sizes are important for two main reasons: 1. You have a limited amount of space on your hosting server 2. Smaller file sizes will load faster making your end user happy Text takes very little space. PDFs and similar docs take up a little more. Images take up more space. Videos take up the most space.
  37. 37. File Sizes -Images Image resolution has to do with PPI (pixels per inch) rather than the actual size of the image. Images on the web are measured in pixels rather than inches. .png files usually have higher resolution and higher file sizes. .gif files tend to have the lowest resolution and lower files sizes. You can compress many images through photo editing software. Always use the smallest acceptable size for both resolution and dimensions.
  38. 38. Websites use PPI (pixels per inch). Printers use DPI (dots per inch)
  39. 39. Video Use YouTube - It saves server space, helps videos play faster, it’s free, and you get passerby traffic as well.
  40. 40. A word about content Do NOT take content from other sites or Google searches. You WILL be sued. There are lots of sites that offer free images that you can use without violating copyright. However, it’s always nice to give people credit.,, You can also find a better selection of images you can buy at Please write your own content or hire a copywriter to write for you.
  41. 41. Mobile Do NOT accept a site that doesn’t work on mobile. Test on mobile and many computers to make sure your site is useable. Click the links. Turn your phone both ways. You can start by shrinking your browser window to see how it looks on smaller devices.
  42. 42. SEO Tips ➔ Use Page Hierarchy ➔ Name All Images Something Meaningful ➔ Keep Content Updated ➔ Remember Page Speed is important ➔ Use HTTPS ➔ Use Internal Links ➔ Make Sure There is Text on the Home Page
  43. 43. Security Even if you think you would not be a target, you are ➔ Use a strong password ➔ Remove Unused sites/files/users ➔ Backup to your site/host/computer/file share service like ➔ Backup to your files on your computer with Carbonite or the like. ➔ Security scans for malware
  44. 44. Social Media & Email Marketing Set it up and use it! This is free marketing people! Don’t give out your passwords. All social media has ways you can give users limited access. This is also true for email marketing sites like Mailchimp. Don’t buy email lists.
  45. 45. Google Ads & Facebook Ads Although they can be very effective, they are also very expensive. Make sure you have someone who knows what they are doing set them up or you will just be wasting money sending ads to people who are not your target market.
  46. 46. Questions?