Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Migration introduction

2,726 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Migration introduction

  1. 1. Animal Migration
  2. 2. What is Migration? <ul><li>Prerequisites for migration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms for storing energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated food sources on the migration route </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Migration ensures animals will have adequate food supplies & will be able to reproduce. </li></ul>Migration is the regular movement of animals from one location to another.
  3. 3. Types of Migration <ul><li>Migration may occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a round trip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a return migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corresponds with the seasons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Some require a lifetime to complete: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Pacific salmon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Born in freshwater streams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel to the ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return to the stream where they were born </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spawn and then die </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Knowing When to Migrate <ul><li>How do animals know when it is time to migrate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones trigger an overwhelming urge to… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eat, mate & reproduce </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External signals (clues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daylight hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarce food supply </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Migration Destinations <ul><li>How do animals know where to go? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized abilities to navigate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: wind & water currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landmarks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: coastlines, mountain ranges, river valleys & distinctive odors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Track the passage of days and months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Track their position in relationship to the sun </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Migration Destinations (cont.) <ul><li>Internal Clues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are sensitive to a mineral known as magnetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found in many animals, including humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows animals to use the earth’s magnetic field as a guide. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex.: Gray whales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large amount of magnetite in their retinas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps them navigate their 10,000 mile journey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Migration: Behavior or Instinct? <ul><li>Monarch butterfly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration is instinctive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fly without guidance or previous experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use little or no directional clues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning migration behaviors for most animals is critical to their survival. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Migration Behaviors <ul><li>Older members of the group teach the younger animals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The route traveled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable strategies and/or behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans teach younger animals, too. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra-light aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taught various species of cranes their migration routes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most animals must learn their migratory routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals who are not taught these behaviors will not likely survive. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why Migrate? <ul><li>Most animals migrate for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food & water: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will migrate to find these resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safe environment for bearing & nursing offspring. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant food sources </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hazards of Migration <ul><li>Two categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural hazards: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food Supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical demands of migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man-made hazards: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers (fences, dams, & skyscrapers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water, aircraft, & fishing practices </li></ul></ul></ul>

×