INDEXEnergy DefinitionTypes of EnergyEnergy SourcesRenewable EnergyNon Renewable EnergyTypes of Power Stations
What is energy?We canunderstand theterm energy asthe ability ofan object to doa work using anenergy source.
Units of EnergyWe can measure energy in different units:- In Joules (J)- In Kilojoules (kJ), that are used to express largerquantities of energy (1000 J = 1kJ)- In Calories (cal), that often measures heatenergy..- In Kilocalories (kcal), that are used to expresslarger quantities of heat.- Calories and Joules measure different units ofenergy:1cal= 4.18 J
Types of EnergyEnergy is classified according to how exists innature. There are different types:- Mechanical Energy-Electrical Energy-Electromagnetic Energy-Sound Energy- Chemical Energy- Nuclear Energy- Thermal or Calorific Energy
Mechanical Energy Kinetic Energy: Is the energy related to motion or its the energy that objects and bodies have when they move. Its also related as the work needed to acelerate a body of a given mass from rest.
Mechanical Energy Potential Energy: Is the energy that objects have when theyre in a high, (its called gravitational potential energy) or when theyre moved from their stable position of equilibrium. For example, when the water falls, it does a force from a distance and it does a work, like moving a turbine.
Electrical Energy Electrical energy is the energy associated with the electric current produced by the movement of electric charges inside the conductor materials. When they are connected to a supply of electricity, it makes electrically powered machines work. Electrical energy produces effects, like luminous, thermical and magnetical. Electrical energy can be transported easily.
Electromagnetic Energy Electromagnetic energy is a form of energy emmited from objects in the form of electrical and magnetic waves than can travel through space, such as radio, television, or X-ray waves. Luminous energy is a type of electromagnetic energy produced by the sun and artificial lights.
Sound EnergySound energy is associated with wavestransmited by the air and produced byvibration objects. We can say that soundenergy is a form of mechanical energy.
Chemical Energy Chemical energy is the part of the energy in a substance that can be released by achemical reaction. Its stored in substances and itcan be absorved during chemical processes.
Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy is the energy released by reactions involiving the nuclei of atoms. We transform nuclar energy into electricity in nuclear power stations.
Thermal or calorific energy Thermal energy is a type of energy that comes from the vibratio nof particles in matter. Temperature measures the thermal energy of an object.
Power The power of a machine is the quantity of work that can do in a unit of time.The formula of Power is: P= W/tWatts measures Power (P)Joules express Work (W)Secounds measure time (t)
Energy SourcesEnergy sources are natural resources thatprovides different forms of energy. Thisenergy is transformed of specific uses.Energy sources can be renewable or non-renewable:Non renewable energy sources: Nuclearenergy, coal, petroleum, and natural gasRenewable energy sources: Hydraulicenergy, Solar energy, Marine energy,Geothermal energy, Biomass.
Non renewable energy sources - They come from natural resources that are limited - They will run out if we continue to use them. - Regeneration is very slowly because the need millions of years to form With non renewable energy sources is easier andcheaper to produce energy that with Renewableenergy sources. The main that we use at the moment are nuclearenergy and energy from fossil fuels.
Nuclear energyProduction:ProductionIts stored in the nuclei of atoms. It originates from the splittingof uranium atoms in a process called fission.There are two kinds: - Nuclear fusion: is the process by which two or more atomicnuclei join together, or fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus.This is usually accompanied by the release of large quantities ofenergy. Its generated by stars
Nuclear energy- Nuclear fission:Nuclear fission is a nuclearreaction in which a heavynucleus (such as uranium)splits into two lighter nuclei(and possible some otherradioactive particles as well)by bombarding it withneutrons.The energy released in thefission of one uraniumnucleus is about 50 milliontimes greater than thatreleased when a carbon atomcombines with oxygen atomsin the burning of coal.
Nuclear EnergyTransformation:Nuclear power stations use fission energy.In a nuclear reactor, nuclear energy is converted to thermal energy.The thermal energy is used to heat water to make steam which canbe used to spin turbines. The turbines spin electrical generators. Alot of electric power comes from nuclear power plants.There are six power stations in Spain, and generate one third ofthe total energy consumed.
- Origin: Origin CoalAbout three hundred millionyears ago, there was aclimate change in the Earth.Oxygen dissapeared so allliving beings died and wereburied and fosilised. Thisfosil is coal, which is lightand black. There are fourtypes of coal (depending onthe amount of carbon itcontains: anthracite,bituminous, lignite and peat.
CoalTransformation:The coal is first burned in order to transform the chemical energy into heatenergy. That heat energy is then absorbed by water inside a boiler, where itis converted into steam. The heat energy in the steam flows through a pipeinto a steam turbine where it is again transformed, this time into mechanicalenergy that enables the turbine shaft to spin. The mechanical energy in theturbine is then transmitted by its shaft, enabling it to turn an electricalgenerator. And, finally, the mechanical energy is transformed by thegenerator into electrical energy.
CoalExtraction:-Open-cast mines: When the coal is close to the suface, the soil is removeand the coal is extracted with special machinery explosives.-Underground mines: When is buried deep below the surface, it must bemined underground. The shafts and tunnels of the mines provide ventilationand eliminate the accumulate gas to prevent accidents. Undergrou Open-cast mine. nd mine
Transport: CoalIn the mine, coal is transported by carts. Then, its washed and gangue (the uselesspart), its removed. When it leaves the mine, its transported: - By sea: in enormous ships (that can weight 500 000 t ) - By land: usually by train (its economical and they can carry large loads) - By road: normally for local transportUses-For Energy - Nowadays its used to: - Generate electricity in conventional power stations - For central heating systems - In the past it was used for street lighting and as a domestic fuel (in the form oftown gas, produced from bituminous coal.- Other Uses Other uses are derivates of coal, such as coke, used in steal industry and pich andtar, used for making roads, plastic, medicines, etc.
Origin: PetroleumPetroleum was formed by the remains of living beings, such asplants and animals, buried under the sea and descomposed bybacterial action. Its a liquid substance, and its and has a lowerdensity than water. It can be found in porous rocks amd basinsforming oil fields.Extraction: Petroleum is expensive and difficult to extract because its verydeep underground. 1. First, a well is drilled on land or under the sea. Then aplataform called oil rig is built. 2. Pumps extract petroleum, or natural pressure that causes theoil rise. 3. The extracted petroleum that contains salt water, rock, mudand gas is purified.
PetroleumStorage and transport:The purified crude oil (unrefined oil) is stored in oil tankers and oilpipelines: - Oil tankers: Its is a merchant ship designed for the transportof oil. There are two basic types of oil tankers: the crude tankerand the product tanker. This dock at special ports where theyrefilled and emptided quickly. - Oil pipelines: are the most efficient method to transport crudeoil and refined products over land. Theyre lie above the surfaceand buried in protected trenches. Oil tanker Oil pipeline
PetroleumTransformation and uses: Fractional distillation isa process carried out inrefineries sto producethese derivates: -Liquefied gases, liquidfuels, fuel oil, lightcomponents and heavycomponents.
Natural gasNatural gas is mixture of hydrocarbon gases that occurs with petroleumdeposits, principally methane together with other gases, and is used as a fueland in the manufacture of organic compounds. It was formed fromdescomposed plants and animals. Is found in underground fields and porousrocks.Extraction: Natural gas is extracted by drilling and its expensive to extract.Storage and transport: 1. It is transported from gas fields by gas pipelines to a liquefaction plant,that is an industrial plant where gas is converted into liquid. 2. The gas is converted into liquid form (LNG). This reduces the volume ofgas. 3. Its transported in LNG carries, that are specially designed ships. 4. When the LNG reaches its destination, its returned to gaseous state, andtransported again through gas pipelines.
Natural gasUses:Natural gas is used to produce thermalenergy, and in thermal power stations toobtain electrical energy.
Renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources are natural energyresources which does not have a limited supply.Renewable energy can be used again and again,and will never run out Types: - Hydraulic energy - Solar energy - Wind energy - Marine energy - Geothermal energy - Biomass - Municipal solid waste
Hydraulic energyHydraulic energy is what is produced by the water which is stored inreservoirs and lakes at a high altitude (so that it has gravitationalpotential energy). If at a given moment it falls to a lower level, thisenergy is transformed into kinetic energy and afterwards into electricalenergy in the hydroelectric plantProduction: The water is stored in dams 1. When water is released from the dam and falls, itspotential energy is transformed into kinetic energy. 2. The kinetic energy moves the turbines which rotates analternator. 3. The alternator transforms kinetic energy intoelectricity.
Hydraulic energyTransformationTo transform hydraulic energy, hydroelectric power stations need: - Rivers with a lot of water - Rivers in valleys with a high slope.Small hydraulic power stations dont contamintate because theyreused to provide electricity to small villages.Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: It is a clean energy source, without waste productsand is easy to store. Also the water stored in reservoirs situated ataltitude permits the regulation of the flow of the river. Disadvantages: The construction of hydroelectric plants isexpensive and needs large networks of power cables. Reservoirs alsomean the loss of productive soil and fauna due to the flooding of theirhabitat. They also cause a decrease in the flow of the rivers andstreams below the dam and alter the quality of the waters.
Solar energy Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun. Thisenergy is in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production ofsolar electricity possible. Life appeared thanks to solar energybencause its necessary for plants to make photosynthesis.Production and transformation Solar energy can be used: - To produce hot water using flat solar thermal collectors. The sun energyis transformed into heat energy using the collectors. - To generate electricity using solar panels. The photovoltaic cellstransform sun energy into electricity. This is used for consumption in homes,busunesses and industry. - To produce electricity using heliostat fields. The sun energy is used toheat up water and produce steam. A generator uses steam to produceelectricity.
Solar energyAdvantages and disadvantages:Advantages: Solar energy is a completely renewableresource.Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all.Solar energy creates absolutely no pollution.Very little maintenance is required to keep solar cells running.Solar powered panels and products are typically extremelyeasy to install.Disadvantages: The Solar Cells and Solar Panels that areneeded to harness solar energy tend to be very expensivewhen you first purchase them.Solar power cannot be harnessed during a storm, on a cloudyday or at night
Wind energyWind Energy is the energy received from themovement of the wind across the earth. This energy isa result of the heating of our oceans, earth, andatmosphere by the sun. It has been used since ancientto move sailing ships.Production and transformationWinds are caused by uneven heating of the atmosphereby the sun. Wind energy has kinetic energy, and when itcauses the blades of a wind turbine move, they convertthe kinetic energy of wind energy into mechanicalpower. Then, mechanical power its tranformed intoelectricity
Wind energyAdvantages and disadvantages:Advantages:Its friendly to the surrounding environment-Wind turbines take up less space than the average power station.-Wind turbines are a great resource to generate energy in remotelocationsDisadvantages:-Sometimes, the winds strength is too low to support a wind turbineor wind farm- Require multiple wind turbines to be built in order to make animpact.-Wind turbine construction can be very expensive
Marine energy Marine energy refers to the energy carried byocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperaturedifferences. The movement of water in the world’soceans creates kinetic energy, or energy in motion. Thisenergy can be harnessed to generate electricity topower homes, transport and industries. Marine energy can be used: - Tidial energy is extracted from the tides. - Wave energy is obtained from the movement of sea waves. - Ocean thermal energy is produced from the difference of temperature between the surface of the sea and the deep sea.
Geothermal energyGeothermal energy is the thermal energy from theEarth., and its stored below the Earths crust. Itusually go out the earth in the form of hot springsand geysers and volcanic eruptions. If thetemperature is below 150º, heat is produced and ifthe temperature is above 150º electricity is producedby this process:
BiomassBiomass is biological material derived fromliving, or recently living organisms. Biomass forenergy can include a wide range of materials,such as virgin wood, energy crops, agriculturalresidues, food waste and industrial waste andco-products.Fossil fuels are also derivated from biologicalmaterial, but the vital differennce betweenbiomass and fosil fuels is one of time scale.
Types of power stationsThere are different types of PowerStations according to the type of energythat they transform into electricity. Themain are:- Hydraulic Power Stations- Solar Power Stations- Nuclear Power Stations-Thermal Power Stations-Eolic Power Stations
Hydraulic Power StationsHydraulic Power Stations use the kinetic or potential energy offlowing water to produce electricity.How do they work?Water in these reservoirs flow down the dam and rotate a turbine.As the blades of a turbine turn, so do the magnets inside thegenerator which is connected to the turbine. These magnets rotatecopper coils and with each rotation, electricity is produced.Building reservoirs can spoil the landscape and destroy villages, andir a dam breaks, it can even provoke a catastrophe. But theadvantages are that producing hydraulic energy is cheap, clean andnon-polluting.
Solar Power StationsSolar power stations use the solar energy that comes from thesun to produce electricity. Solar energy is one of the mostabundant natural resources.How do they work?Using solar panels, light is transform into electricity usingphotovoltaic cells.In heliostat fields, mirror reflect light onto a collector. Thecolectors use the thermal energy of the solar energy to heatwater and produce steam. A generator then uses the steam toproduce electricity.Solar power stations are not very abundant because theyre quiteexpensive for general use, but they produce unlimited energywithout polluntig.
Nuclear Power StationsNuclear Power Stations work using the chemical process offission, and also the process of fussion. Nuclear reactorsare used to generate electricity.How do they work?Fission is a type of nuclear reaction in which, when theatoms of elements absorb free neutrons, they split intotwo or more small nuclei and some free neutrons. In theprocess, large amount of energy is released.Nuclear Power Stations produce a lot of electricity, butits very dangerous for the environment and pollute a lot.They can provoke a catastrophe, like in 2011, in Fukushima.
Thermal Power StationsThermal Power Stations generate electrical energy from thermalenergy (heat). They use the heat from burning coal, petroleumand natural gas.How do they work?Today, coal is the most common fuel that is used by thermalpower stations. The heat generated by burning the fossil fuels isused to turn a rotating machinery, most commonly a steamturbine or a gas turbine that changes the thermal energy intomechanical energy. The rotating turbine is attached to analternator that coverts the mechanical energy of the rotatingturbine into electrical energy.Thermal power stations can be polluting for the environment.
Eolic Power StationsEolic Power Stations transform wind energy into electricalenergy in wind farms using wind turbines.How do they work?When wind energy causes the blades of a wind turbine to move,the winds kinetic energy is converted into electricity.
Wind turbines can produce water A French engineering invented a special wind turbine that can produce water from thin air, but theyre still developing the capacities. The wind turbine suck the air that contains water. It extracts humidity from the air, creating moisture which is condensed and collected. Then the water is filtered and purified before it can be consumed. One turbine can produce 1000 liters of water every day, depending on the condition. Its enough to provide water from 2000 to 3000 people. So this wind turbine is very useful in places where there is no water, like Africa, South Africa and some places in Asia. Now the wind turbine is a little bit expensive, but it isnt so much compared with the solutions that it gives.