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Readings 3-5


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Readings 3-5

  1. 1. Readings 3-5 Cristina Chavarro Tatiana Figüeroa Laura Ramírez Laura Varela
  2. 2. Reading 3 <ul><ul><li>Not enough to maintain the cotton industry, among other factories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution --> allowed the triumph of the Industrial Revolution in England and Scotland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Energy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms need it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dif. Sources, shapes and ways to be converted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans -->Tools= energy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Prehistoric times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medieval Times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16th & 17th Centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants, Animals & Humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and Wind Mills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercontinental Sailing (water & wind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal, human & plants = low energy & power </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>&quot;The lack of power lay at the heart of poverty.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No machines = more work = less production = expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need --> sources energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood = primary heat & transportation --> Iron industry needed wood --> Stop 1740 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Reading 4 <ul><ul><li>Energy crisis & Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Steam Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal reserve --> Alternative to wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could be used to make mech. Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient converters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed more coal --> deeper mines --> got filled with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mech. Pumps --> animals = expensive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Thomas Savery and Thomas Newcomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Steam Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were still used through out both English and Scottish mines. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8.   <ul><ul><li>James Watt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed the problems with Newcomen's engine --> made it more effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Most fundamental advance in technology.” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Steam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed coal  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for the engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced waterpower in the cotton industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1844 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron was the “cheap, basic, building block of the economy” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reading 5 <ul><ul><li>Steam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People were experimenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to first trains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth--> Passenger traffic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Freight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Steam Engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipment by land = expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipment by water was less expensive, thus it was more used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noisy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged Roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scared Horses </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Road/ Rails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Important Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Industry --> mine carts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavier loads were easier to carry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liverpool and Manchester Railway. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to more steam experimenting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1825 First effective locomotive (Rocket)--> George Stephenson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1830 Rocket went on the railway at 16 m/h </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic consequences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced the cost of shipping freight by land. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation costs descended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Markets became larger and more nation-wide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Led to larger factories --> more machines --> More Industries --> More Urban Workers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Urban Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads --> Demand unskilled labor (Temporary work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were landless farmers and peasants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After the work was done, they mostly stayed in the village </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The railroad changed the outlook and values of the entire society” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important invention of this era --> railroad </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The  End </li></ul>Thank you for watching!