He treats learnability as the most fundamental criteria. The system should be easy to learn so that the user can rapidly start getting some work done with it”
“Jeng proposed a usability model for academic digital libraries employing four operational usability criteria – effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and learnability”
Guenther explains usability as users’ ability to perform the tasks with ease when users use and navigate the Web site. In order to decide what is “usable”, criteria and measurement of usability are developed but these evaluation criteria should be different based on the purpose of Web site and the type of organization. He gives examples of the criteria of testing usability of the web site of a financial company should be different with those of a website addressing consumer health. The criteria for the former one should be designed to test the ability of enabling financial transactions while those of the latter one should be designed to provide health information
There are many different components that can potentially contribute to a user’s online experience and hence the web usability of a website. Not all the literatures agrees on exactly what components or criteria best describe or judge what makes good web usability but there are some agreed upon elements. These are as follows:
E.g. a student with specific information needs will have their online experience affected more if information content was lacking on the website compared to having slower download speeds. Personal context can also play a major role in web usability criteria as well. People more familiar with similar websites will be able to use like websites more easily than people who don’t. With this in mind it is important to base web usability criteria around your user’s contexts.
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David ,Cummings n6373623Kendy Ching, Lau n7606133 Image courtesy of arunabhdasprojects. Available under a CC license at http://www.flickr.com/photos/58592939@N07/5374410135/
1. Web usability: 2. CMS: 3. Relate CMS to web usability web usability in a criteria functions of CMS library context
What is web usability? Image courtesy of David J Rout. Available under a CC licence at http://www.flickr.com/photos/nzdave/491409048/
“The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness (Task completion by users), efficiency (Task in time) and satisfaction (responded by user in term of experience) in a specified context of use”. ISO 9241-11 (1998, para. 16)
Nielsen defines usability Learnability Efficiency Memorability low error rate satisfaction (as cited in Jeng, 2009, p. 279).
A usability model for academic digital libraries -four operational usability criteria effectiveness efficiency satisfaction learnability Jeng (as cited in Soohyung & Jee Yeon, 2011, p. 525)
Web Usability Description ComponentLearnability The time it takes for a user to be sufficiently able to use a website given little to no previous experience beforehand.Efficiency Is the average time it takes for a user to complete a simple task and the amount of errors performed during that task.Effectiveness Examines how efficient a user is in navigating and using a websiteSatisfaction Is the users perception and attitude towards the site
Web Usability Description ComponentMemorability Is how well a user who has previously visited the website is able to navigate and use it effectively without having to relearn new elementsInteractiveness How engaging and responsive the website is to user inputInformation Content The quality, amount and variety of information a website presents its user.Download Speed The time it takes for the content of a website to upload to the user end.Visually appealing The website is visually attractive to the users yet easy to understand (Guenther, 2003; ISO 9241-11,1998 ; Jeng, 2009).
Users information needs and computing environment affect web usability criteria A student with specific information needs Information content of the website slower download speeds. Personal context People more familiar with similar websites will be able to use like websites more easily than people who don’t. (Black, 2011)
(Polgar, 2010, p.1)Image courtesy of Kushtrim Hyda. Available under a CC license athttp://www.flickr.com/photos/48651422@N05/4668993005/
1. Enterprise CMS is a tool and technology to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to an organization business processes.2. Web CMS: is a web application which facilitates creation, content control, editing, and many essential maintenance functions. Most systems use database to store the metadata and pointers to the actual content.3. Mobile CMS: is capable of storing and delivering content and services to mobile devices (Polgar, 2010)
A CMS provides a programming platform from which a website creator to create and manage a website in a far more efficient and easy manner.
CMS programming platform utilizes style sheet to make a base template This base template design is used throughout many different websites ensuring that when you create your website the first edition is intuitive and user friendly. This will improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness when compared to a website created by standard programming for the first time.
“ Many libraries also want to customize their website’s look and feel to emphasize consistency and branding...(and) A CMS assists conformity by providing a centrally managed system for displaying the content.” Michael (2006, p. 5)
Users with limited HTML skills can customize and improve a website. greater customization and the inclusion of features. visually appealing effective and efficient
CMS can create, monitor, control (update, delete) and organise a websites content without the need for real-time input.
Some library use Wordpress as CMS system to manage the library website content ◦ keep the content current and fresh through adding a frequently updated news page. ◦ News updates and posts are automatically displayed on the main page site or another specified page. (Jones & Farrington, 2011)
Access control to protect information content An account based system with each account given a specific rank.
The rank determines the right and privileges the account user has when altering the websitepromote information governance Administrator Content Editor Content Creator
content is previewed before publishing (Black, 2011) quality information content maintain the structure of the site memorability of the website
Web 2.0 as an emerging pattern of new uses of the web and approaches to web development . OReilly (2007)“ To transform the Web into a space that allows anyone to create and share information online-a space for collaboration, conversation, and interaction; a space that is highly dynamic, flexible, and adaptable.” Coombs (2007, p. 16)
CMS can act as a bridge between this idea and the coding restraints allowing a library with minimal coding knowledge to imply a fully functional Web 2.0 website.
Blog is a kind of Web 2.0 tool most often adopted by public libraries for its new, exciting and easy- to-use function to communicate with users through enabling comments at the blog posts. Godwin & Parker (2008) Drupal (an open source CMS) , as a tool to enhance Web 2.0 in libraries Add wiki functionality, forums and blogs into Drupal site, Drupal can help to integrate and manage them all together. Farkas (2008)
CMS Web 2.0 Personalized account CMS Web 2.0 Users’ interaction
Functions of CMS Criteria of web usabilityCMS utilizes style sheet Conformity of the site, effectiveness and efficiencyCMS enhances staff with limited Customize the siteHTML skills Visually appealingCMS provides access control and Quality information contentpromotes information governanceContent is previewed before publishingCMS maintains structure of the site Memorability of the site usersCMS facilitates Web 2.0 Personalized functions for users Interactions with users
“ The challenge of implementing a CMS may not be a fully technical one, the selection must be tied to the goals and strategy of the library and parent organization and meet specific local requirements for functionality.” Black (2001, p.185)