Invasive Alien Plants and EPPO Sarah BrunelSlovenian Plant Protection Organization 22nd of June 2012
European and MediterraneanPlant Protection Organization • Created in 1951 by 15 countries • Now 50 Member Countries • Under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) • International cooperation in plant protection (plant quarantine and plant protection products) • Bilingual (English/French)
Impact on agricultureSolanum elaeagnifolium competes withmany crops (cotton, maize, lucerne,wheat, olive, etc). In Morocco, losses ofup to 64% in maize without treatment and78% in cotton have been reported.
Impact on land valueAgricultural land infested with S. elaeagnifoliumloses considerable rental and resale value. InMorocco, the value of infested fields decreasedby 25%. In the USA, farms have been abandonedbecause of infestation.
Impact on biodiversityCarpobrotus spp. outcompete otherspecies, and threaten at least 27 plantspecies considered rare, endemic, orprotected in the South of France.
Crassula helmsii outcompetes manynative aquatic plants, in particular therare starfruit Damasonium alisma (oneof the rarest plants in UK).
Costs of controlThe management of 75 km of theGuadiana river in Spain invaded byEichhornia crassipes cost 14,680,000euros from 2005 to 2008.
In the UK, the estimate for control of thetotal area infested by H. ranunculoidesby herbicides is between £250,000 and£300,000 per year.
Impact on healthAmbrosia artemisiifolia provocksallergies. In the Rhone-Alpes region inFrance, 10% of the population issensitive to this species.
A German study assessed the economic impactof H. mantegazzianum to be more than 12million euros annually in the country,distributed among the health system(1.050.000 euros), nature reserves (1.170.000euros), road management (2.340.000 euros),municipal management (2.100.000 euros) anddistrict management (5.600.000 euros).
EPPO Reporting Service New outbreaks and alerts Pathways of introduction Eradication and management Biology and research Events: conferences Register at:http://www.eppo.org/PUBLICATIONS/reporting/reporting_service.htm
The EPPO BulletinPublished 3 times a year, contains: - Invited or submitted papers on all aspects of plant protection - Papers presented at EPPO conferences (e.g. proceedings of the workshop on Eichhornia crassipes) - EPPO Standards
The EPPO Panel on Invasive Alien Species• Created in 2002 with the following tasks: to collect data on invasive alien plants in the EPPO region, to collect information on official control measures existing in the EPPO region for invasive alien plants, to conduct pilot studies on pest risk assessment and pest risk management of specific invasive alien plants.• About 20 Panel members nominated by the National Plant Protection Organization of their countries.• Meets every year.
Organizing Workshops Workshop on Eichhornia crassipes (Water Hyacinth) in Merida, Spain in 2008 40 participants from 13 countriesWorkshop onSolanum elaeagnifolium(Silverleaf nightshade) inSouss, Tunisia in 200623 participants from 9countries
2nd Worksop on Invasive Alien Plants inMediterranean Type Regions of the World, Trabzon (TR), 2010-08-02/06Attended by 90 participants from 29 countries, topics addressed:- Plant invasions in the Mediterranean: where do we stand?- Global Change, risk assessment and modelling of invasive alien plants- Communication, policies & strategies for tackling invasive alien plants- Early detection, eradication and management of invasive alien plants All presentations and outcomes available at:http://archives.eppo.org/MEETINGS/2010_conferences/mediterranean_ias.htm
Sweden Norway Estonia Russia Lithuania The Netherlands Latvia United Belarus Kingdom. Germany Czech Republic France Austria Switzerland Hungary Italy Turkey Israel
Lists, prioritization ofspecies and pest risk analysis
Which species to consider?Species present in the EPPO region Species absent from the EPPO region
Which species to consider? Wide Limited Very limiteddistribution distribution distribution
The EPPO prioritization process for IAPGeneral principles The EPPO process is designed: •A. to produce a reference list of IAP that are established or could potentially establish in the EPPO region. •B. to determine which Invasive Alien Plants (IAP) have the highest priority for an EPPO pest risk analysis (= quick screening tool to identify potential quarantine organisms);Brunel et al. (2010) Article freely available on request
Criteria to produce lists of invasive alien plants Invasiveness categories Combination of spread and impact Spread capacityImpact (highest impact recorded) Low Medium High Invasiveness High (list of IAP) Medium (observ. list) High Low (minor concern) Medium Low
EPPO List of Invasive Alien SpeciesTerrestrial and aquatic species for which EPPO stronglyrecommends countries to take measures to prevent theirintroduction and spread or to manage unwanted populations Amorpha fruticosaCortaderia selloana Carpobrotus edulis & acinaciformis Fallopia spp. Etc.Althernanthera Ailanthus altissimaphilloxeroides Ambrosia artemisiifoli Pistia stratiotes
EPPO List of Invasive Alien Species Species Year of addition Priority for PRA Species Date of addition Priority for Acacia dealbata 2006List of IAP to the PRA Priority Acacia dealbata 2006 Priority Acroptilon repens Acroptilon repens 20052005 Lower priority Lower priority Ailanthus altissima 2004 Not a priority Ailanthus altissima Alternanthera 2004 2012 Priority Not a priority philoxeroides Ambrosia artemisiifolia 2004 Lower priority Alternanthera philoxeroides Amelanchier spicata 20122004 Lower priority Priority Amorpha fruticosa 2006 Lower priority Ambrosia artemisiifolia Baccharis halimifolia 20042006 Priority Lower priority Buddleia davidii 2006 Lower priority Amelanchier spicata Cabomba caroliniana Carpobrotus acinaciformis 2004 2006 2006 PRA available Not a priority Lower priority Carpobrotus edulis 2006 Not a priority Amorpha fruticosa Cornus sericea 2006 2012 Lower priority Lower priority Cortaderia selloana 2006 Lower priority Baccharis halimifolia Delairea odorata 2006 2012 Lower priority Priority Cyperus esculentus 2004 Not a priority Buddleia davidii Egeria densa Elodea nuttallii 2006 2005 2004 Lower priority Not a priority Lower priority Fallopia baldschuanica 2012 Lower priority Cabomba caroliniana Fallopia japonica 2006 2004 Not a priority PRA available Fallopia sachalinensis 2004 Not a priority Carpobrotus acinaciformis Fallopia x bohemica 2006 2004 Not a priority Not a priority Hakea sericea 2012 Priority Carpobrotus edulis Helianthus tuberosus Heracleum 2006 2004 2004 Not a priority Not a priority Not a priority mantegazzianum Cornus sericea Humulus japonicus 20122012 Priority Lower priority Hydrilla verticillata 2012 Priority Cortaderia selloana 2006 Lower priority Delairea odorata 2012 Lower priority
What is Pest Risk Analysis?World Trade Organization (WTO) International Plant Protection Organization (IPPC) SPS Agreement European and Mediterranean ISPM Plant Protection N°11 Organization (EPPO) PRA EPPO PM 5/3 PRA
Pest Risk AnalysisPest Risk Assessement - Probability of entry - Probability of establishment and spread -Assessment of potential economic consequences (including environmental impacts)Pest Risk Management - Measures related to the consignement - Measures related to the crop or to places of production
80% of the invasive alien plants areimported for ornamental purposesImport data on aquatic plants from 9countries was collected. Among the250 species recorded:- 10 are considered invasive by EPPO(Azolla filiculoides, Crassula helmsii, Eichhornia crassipes,Egeria densa, Elodea nuttalli, Hydrilla verticillata,Lagarosipphon major, Ludwigia grandiflora, Myriophyllumaquaticum, Pistia stratiotes)- 6 additionnal represent a potentialthreat (Alternanthera sessilis, Adiantum raddianum,Gymnocoronis spilanthoides, Hygrophila polysperma,Limnophila sessiliflora, Syngonium podophyllum)
http://cccmkc.edu.hk/~kei- kph/Hydrophyte/Hydrophyte_image/floating %20aquatic%20plant_800.jpgStandard in preparation for themanagement of invasive aquaticalien plants
Codes of conduct onHorticulture and Invasive Alien Plants
AimTo enlist the cooperation of the horticultural industryand associated professionals to adopt good practices in: - Raising awareness of this topic among professionals, - Preventing the spread of invasive alien species already present in Europe, and - Preventing the introduction of possible new invasive alien plants into Europe.
AudienceNational Plant GovernmentsProtectionOrganizations The horticultural industry: importers, traders, nurseries (including aquatic plant producers), garden centres, aquarists, landscape architects, managers of public or private areas (e.g. parks and recreational areas, erosion prevention areas).
Main elements to be included AWARENESS1. Be aware of species towhich the code of conductapplies2. Identify exactly what you aregrowing and trading: ensure thatmaterial introduced into cultivationis correctly named3. Be aware of regulations,guidelines and recommendationsconcerning invasive alien plants
Main elements to be included COLLABORATION4. Encourage other stakeholders inthe supply chain to commit to thiscode of conduct ACTION5. Avoid further spread of invasivealien plants
Main elements to be included ACTION6. Make substitutes for invasivealien plants available
Main elements to be included ACTION7. Be careful how you get rid ofplant waste: disposal ofunwanted stock of plants andwaste containing plant material8. Follow good productionpractices to avoidunintentional introductionand spread
Main elements to be included PUBLICITY9. Apply good practices forlabelling Rosa rugosa (Rosaceae) Rugosa rose, Hedgehog rose Native to Eastern Asia, invasive in Northern and Central Europe. Ensure it does not escape from gardens. Do not plant in or near dunes, where it threatens other species of plants, as well as some animals (e.g. butterflies) and modify the habitat.
Main elements to be included PUBLICITY10. Engage in publicity andoutreach activities
OutcomesCode of conduct available inEnglish, French, Spanish, Polish,etc. 12 countries report nationalinitiatives involving Codesof conduct either on-going orplanned:Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland,Liechtenstein, Norway, Poland,Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, theNetherlands, Great Britain.
Thank you E-mail: email@example.comWebsite: www.eppo.org