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Timeline Mind, Brain and Education by Tracey Tokuhama

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Timeline Mind, Brain and Education by Tracey Tokuhama

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Timeline Mind, Brain and Education by Tracey Tokuhama

  1. 1. 1700s First Industrial Revolution 1500-1600 CE Age of Enlightenment 1300-1500 CE Renaissance 500-1300 CE Middle Ages 100-600 CE Late Antiquity 480-100 BCE Classical Hellenistic, and Roman Period 800-500 BCE Ancient civilizations. Archaic Period 3000-800 BCE Ancient Times 1960s Counter culture movement 1900-1920s New Imperialism. New Culture Movement in China 1930-1950s Third Industrial Revolution (First Digital) 1800s Second Industrial Revolution 1980s 1970s 1990s 2000-2001 Second Digital Age 2004-2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Fourth Industrial Revolution (Connectivity) 2002-2003 © Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa 2019 with support from David Daniel, Sashank Varma, Michael Thomas, Sylvia Bunge, Nienke van Atteveldt, Curtis Kelly, Marie Edita Kaye, and Cynthia Borja EDUCATIONHEALTHBRAINMIND M B H E DECADE OF THE BRAIN MIND, BRAIN, (HEALTH) AND EDUCATION SCIENCE M B H E The Five Pillars of the Mind: Redesigning Education to Suit the Brain (Tokuhama-Espinosa) Neuroethics in Educational Technology: Keeping the Brain in Mind When Developing Frameworks for Ethical Decision-Making (Parsons, Lin & Cockerham) Bridging Cognitive, Affective, and Social Neuroscience with Education (Richaud, Filippetti & Mesurado) “Educational Neuroscience: Exploring Cognitive Processes that Underlie Learning” (Antonenko) “Rethinking Learning in the Rapid Developments of Neuroscience, Learning Technologies, and Learning Sciences” (Lin, Parsons & Cockerham) “Understanding Fractions: Integrating Results from Mathematics Education, Cognitive Psychology, and Neuroscience” (Obersteiner, Dresler, Bieck, & Moeller) “Microbiome– Microglia Connections Via The Gut–Brain Axis” (Abdel-Haq, Schlachetzki, Glass & Mazmanian) Cultural neuroscience combined with affect-cognition studies: “Emotions, Social Activity and Neuroscience: The Cultural-Historical Formation of Emotion” (Burkeitt) The term Positive Psychiatry used for the first time in the literature “Positive Psychiatry: Neuroscience of Brain Health and Resilience” (Cassidy & Cassidy) “A Systematic Review of Genetic Influence on Psychological Resilience” (Niitsu, Rice, Houfek, Stoltenberg, Kupzyk & Barron) The term Radical Neuro-Constructivism coined (Tokuhama-Espinosa) “Brain Science: A Meta-Discipline for Education” (Hoy) MBE Curriculum Design Neuroethics Mental Health and Well-being Mind, Brain and Technology 5th conference of the Neuroscience and Education SIG of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), London Master’s in Brain and Cognition, Universitat Pompeu Gabra, Barcelona “Blockchain for Education: Lifelong Learning Passport” (Gräther, Kolvenbach, Ruland, Schütte, Torres & Wendland) The Mind, the Brain and Complex Adaptive Systems (Morowitz) “Sharing Successes and Hiding Failures: ‘Reporting Bias’ In Learning and Teaching Research” (Dawson & Dawson) 7th International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Conference, Los Angeles, CA Neuromyths: Debunking False Ideas About the Brain (Tokuhama-Espinosa) Reader, Come Home: The Reading Brain in a Digital World (Wolf) Inventing Ourselves: The Secret Life of the Teenage Brain (Blakemore) “Psychobiotics” and the Science of How Gut Bacteria Can Affect the Human Brain” (Enck & Campbell) “Mind, Brain and Education: First Seminar in Africa”, South Africa 2018: Reimagine Education conference in San Francisco, CA “The New Genetics of Intelligence” (Plom & Strumm) 5th Reimagine Education conference, San Francisco, CA University of London Centre for Educational Neuroscience “How the Brain Works” (Michael Thomas) “Cosmetic Neurology: The Controversy Over Enhancing Movement, Mentation, and Mood” (Russo) International MBE Cooperation Probiotics Bias Cosmetic Neurology The Reading Mind: A Cognitive Approach to How the Mind Reads (Willingham) “The Sleep-Deprived Human Brain” (Krause, Simon, Mander, Greer, Saletin, Goldstein-Piekarski, & Walker) Second International Delphi panel on Mind, Brain, and Education science (Tokuhama-Espinosa) The New Art in the Science of Teaching (Marzano) Constructions of Neuroscience in Early Childhood Education (Vandenbroeck, Jan De Vos, Wim Fias, Mariett Olsson, Penn, Wastell & White) Research in Mind, Brain, and Education (Schwartz & Paré-Blagoev [Ed.], 2017) OECD publication recommending governments changes teacher college curriculum to include more neuroscience and technology (Guerriro, 2017) Educational Neuroscience, Educational Psychology, and Classroom Pedagogy as a System From the Laboratory to the Classroom (Cooney, Horvath, Lodge & Hattie) “Dispelling the Myth: Training in Education or Neuroscience Decreases but Does Not Eliminate Beliefs in Neuromyths” (Macdonald, Germine, Anderson, Christodoulou & McGrath) “Big Data and the Industrialization of Neuroscience: A Safe Roadmap For Understanding the Brain?” (Frégnac) “From Regions to Connections and Networks: New Bridges Between Brain and Behavior” (Mišić & Sporns) “The Independent Influences of Age and Education on Functional Brain Networks and Cognition in Healthy Older Adults” (Perry, Wen, Kochan, Thalamuthu, Sachdev & Breakspear) Sleep hygiene Complexity theory Block Chain Accreditation of Learning Data Privacy Issues 6th International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Conference, Toronto, Canada “The Principles and Practices of Educational Neuroscience: Comment on Bowers” (Howard-Jones, Varma, Ansari, Butterworth, DeSmedt, Goswami, Laurillard, & Thomas) 4th conference of the Neuroscience and Education SIG of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Amsterdam “Educational Neuroscience: Challenges and Opportunities” (Tandon & Chatterjee Singh) Deans For Impact agree that teachers need more Neuroscience and more Technology “Mind, Brain, and Education: A Discussion of Practical, Conceptual, and Ethical Issues” (Ansari) Gut-Brain Axis, The Grain Brain, Whole Life Plan (Perlmutter with Loberg) “Mind, Brain, and Education: A Transdisciplinary” Field” (Knox) 2016: 3rd Reimagine Education conference in Philadelphia, PA “Precision Education Initiative: Moving Towards Personalized Education” (Hart) Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (Duckworth) “Where is Educational Neuroscience?” (Bruer) “Neural Correlates of Performance Monitoring During the Transition to Young Adulthood” (Knežević, Veroude, Jolles, & Krabbendam) “A Bridge Too Far – Revisited: Reframing Bruer’s Neuroeducation Argument for Modern Science of Learning Practitioners” (Horvath & Donoghue) Increased Transdisciplinarity Data-drive Educational Decisions Medical Model for Teacher Education Grit and Resilience Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations (van der Meulen, Krabbendam & de Ruyter) “No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education” (Busso & Pollack) “Brain Science and Early Years Policy: Hopeful Ethos or ‘Cruel Optimism’?” (Edwards, Gillies & Horsley) “Mindfulness is Associated with Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Between Default Mode and Salience Networks” (Doll, Hölzel, Boucard, Wohlschläger & Sorg) npj Science of Learning journal published and an open-source reference on the learning sciences The npj Science of Learning Community is founded to offer synthesized versions of scientific articles for educators Emotions, Learning and the Brain (Immordino-Yang) Neuro Tribes (Silberman) National Public Radio launches “Hidden Brain” podcast Johns Hopkins Mind, Brain and Teaching Ed.D. program established, online format Centre for Neurosci- ence in Education created community page for the public understanding of science George Lucas Educational Foundation “Encouraging Neurodiversity in Your Makerspace or Classroom” (Waters) “Mind, Brain, and Education: A Decade of Evolution” (Schwartz) 2015: 2nd Reimagine Education conference in Philadelphia “The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience For the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning” (Howard-Jones) Brain Culture: Shaping Policy Through Neuroscience (Pykett) “Brain-based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work” (Edelenbosch & Kupper) Open platforms on MBE and the Learning Sciences Maker Spaces Movement Mindfulness Neuro Tribes Universities in existential crisis 3rd Conference of the Neuroscience and Education SIG of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Göttingen Japan Association For Language Teaching (JALT) Special Interest Group on Mind, Brain, and Education The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience For the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning (Howard-Jones, Ott, van Leeuwen & DeSmedt) How Neuroscience is Affecting Education (Wellcome Trust Foundation) The Education and Neuroscience Initiative (Wellcome Trust Foundation) Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering how the brain codes our thoughts (Dehaene) 1st Reimagining Education Conference held Philadelphia, PA, USA “Plasticity as a Framing Concept Enabling Transdisciplinary Understanding and Research in Neuroscience and Education” (García Carrasco, Hernández Serrano & Martín García) 5th International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Conference, Fort Worth, TX Free 3D Brain Apps “The Latin American School on Education and the Cognitive and Neural Sciences: Goals and Challenges” (Bruer) OECD Symposium on “Teachers as Learning Specialists – Implications for Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge and Professionalism” National Geographic Issue dedicated to The New Science of the Brain “Neuroscience and Education: Prime Time to Build The Bridge” (Signman, Peña, Goldin & Ribeiro) Harvard University offers doctoral Ph.D. program in Mind, Brain, and Education “Do You Know Your Brain? A Survey on Public Neuroscience Literacy at the Closing of the Decade of the Brain” (Herculano-Houzel, 2002) Neuroscience and Educational policy construction Neuroscience and Technology debate Teachers as Learning Scientists Broader societal interest in the brain 4th International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Conference, Quito, Ecuador Launch of the International Journal on Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education Making Classrooms Better: 50 practical applications of Mind, Brain, and Education science (Tokuhama-Espinosa) “Neuroscience for Educators: What Are They Seeking, and What Are They Finding?” (Hook & Farah) Beginning of the Human Brain Project. Obama announces “Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative” Explain the Brain website list from the Society For Neuroscience to help teachers understand neuroscience, including the Zoomable Brain Atlas “Neuroscience and Learning: Implica- tions for Teaching Practice” (Guy & Byrne) Educational Neuroscience (Mareschal, Butterworth & Tolmie) “Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development” (Dubinsky, Roerig & Varma) “Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise” (Chiao, Cheon, Pornpattanangkul, Mrazek & Blizinsky) “Mind, Brain and Education as a Framework for Curricular Reform” (Larrison) “Neuroethics, Neuroeducation, and Classroom Teaching: Where the Brain Sciences Meet Pedagogy” (Hardiman, Rinne, Gregory & Yarmolinskaya) Visible Learning And The Science of How We Learn 2013: (Yates & Hattie) “An Agenda For Neuroeducation: Relating Psychophysiological and Behavioral Data Across Time Scales of Learning” (Mercier & Charland) “The Human Nervous System: A Framework for Teaching and the Teaching Brain” (Rodriguez) “Teaching and Learning From a Cognitive Scientific View: Interpersonal and Interpersonal Understanding of Education” (Watanabe) STEM and STEAM initiatives Practical Applications of MBE in schools Educational Apps 2nd conference of the Neuroscience and Education SIG of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI ), London 2012: “Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers” (Dekker, Lee, Howard-Jones, & Jolles) First issue of Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience launched “Evolutionary Perspectives on Mind, Brain, and Education” (Howard-Jones) “Boundary as Bridge: An Analysis of the Educational Neuroscience Literature from a Boundary Perspective” (Beaucamp, & Beaucamp) “Neuroethics, Neuroeducation, and Classroom Teaching: Where the Brain Sciences Meet Pedagogy” (Hardiman, Rinne, Gregory & Yarmolinskya) Vanderbilt launched the nation’s first educational neuroscience doctoral program “Neuroscience Implications for Education and Lifelong Learning” (Frith) “Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Challenges for Curriculum” (Clement & Lovat) Neuroscience in Education: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Della Sala & Anderson [Ed.]) Connectograms, graphical representations of connectomics; all of the white matter fiber connections in the human brain (Irimia, Chambers, Torgerson, Van Horn, 2012) BrainFacts.org was developed by the Society For Neuroscience and others to help Educators When Can You Trust the Experts? How to tell good science from bad in education (Willingham) The Whole-Brain Child (Siego & PayneBryson) Who’s In Charge? Free Will in the Brain (Gazzaniga) Whole-Brain and Education Rise in studies on neuromyths Policy statements from MBE More conferences, more academic programs, more funding 3rd International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention (Posner) “Why Mind, Brain, and Education Science is the" New" Brain-Based Education” (Tokuhama-Espinosa) Educational Neuroscience: Initiatives and Emerging Issue (Pattern & Campbell) Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners (Ritchhart, Church & Morrison) “Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRIi Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence” (Geake) “Directions for Mind, Brain, and Education: Methods, Models, and Morality” (Stein & Fischer) “Mind, Brain, and Education: The Birth of a New Learning Science” (Ferrari & McBride) First Annual Brain Days (FABs) 1-11, in Japan, the Philippines, Macau, & Korea Conference, San Diego, CA “What Does the Brain Have to Do With Learning?” (Worden, Hinton & Fiischer) “Understanding Complexity in the Human Brain” “Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education” (Kuhl) Neuroscience: Implications For Life-Long Learning (Module) “Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework” (O’Grady) Whole-child movement Life-long Learning MOOCs Domain Area Research Social Emotional Learning “Neuroscience and the Future of Early Childhood Policy: Moving from Why to What and How” (Shonkoff & Levitt) First conference of the Neuroscience and Education SIG of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI),Zurich. “A Model For Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education” (Tommerdahl) Mind, Brain, and Education Science: A Comprehensive Guide to the New Brain-Based Teaching (Tokuhama-Espinosa) Mind, Brain, & Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom (Sousa (Ed.]) The New Science of Teaching and Learning: Using the best of Mind, Brain, and Education Science in the Classroom (Tokuhama-Espinosa) Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Atypical development (Coch, Dawson & Fischer) “I Am My Connectome“ Ted Talk by Sebastian Seung “Human Neuroplasticity and Education” (Battro & Dehaene) Why Students Don’t Like School (Willlingham) Networks of the Brain (Sporn) Reading in the Brain: The New Science of How We Read (Dehaene) “Linking Mind, Brain, and Education to Clinical Practice: A Proposal for Transdisciplinary Collaboration” (Ronstadt & Yellin) A call for “Neuroscience Education for PreK-12 Teachers” (Dubinsky) Making Learning Whole: How Seven Principles of Teaching Can Transform Education (Perkins) MBE begins to influence Policy Decisions Educational guides for teachers about neuroscience-supported interventions The Connectome Project was launched Learning Styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) myth debunked (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer) Conference: “Neuroeducation: Findings and Challenges for Educators and Researchers from the 2009 John Hopkins University Summit” Introducing Neuroeducational Research: Neuroscience, Education and the Brain from Contexts to Practice (Howard-Jones) 2nd International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Conference, China Johns Hopkins Mind, Brain and Teaching Master’s [online format in 2010] and Ed.D. program established “Mind, Brain, and Education: Building a Scientific Ground- work for Learning and Teaching” (Fischer) “Can the Differences Between Education and Neuroscience be Overcome by Mind, Brain, and Education?” (Samuels) “Building Mind, Brain, and Education Connections: The View From the Upper Valley” (Coch, Michlovitz, Ansari & Baird) “Thinking about Mechanisms is Crucial to Connecting Neuroscience and Education” (Coch & Ansari) “Using and Misusing Neuroscience in Education-Related Research” (Christodoulou & Gaab) “Need For Infrastructure to Connect Research with Practice in Education” (Fischer & Daniel) “Neuroscience of Learning Arithmetic - Evidence from Brain Imaging Studies” (Zamarian, Ischebeck & Delazer) Connectome Project launched Neuroeducation and Educational Neuroscience used interchangeably with Mind, Brain, and Education science First doctoral thesis on Mind, Brain, and Education science (Tokuhama-Espinosa) American Educational Research Association creates SIG 14 on Brain, Neurosciences, and Education Stanford University’s Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research created “Dynamic Cycles of Cognitive and Brain Development: Measuring Growth In Mind, Brain, And Education” (Fischer) “The Seductive Allure of Neuroscience Explanations” (Weisberg, Goodstein, Rawson & Gray) University College of London Educational Neuroscience degree program “Mind, Brain, and Education and Biological Timing” (Golombek & Cardinali) “Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience” (Varma, McCandliss & Schwartz) Proust and the Squid: The Story of Science and the Reading Brain (Wolf) “Learning as Problem Design versus Problem Solving: Making the Connection Between Cognitive Neuroscience Research and Educational Practice” (Ablin) The Educated Brain: Essays in Neuroeducation (Battro, Fischer & Lena) “Understanding Mind, Brain, And Education As a Complex, Dynamic Developing System: Measurement, Modeling, and Research” (van Geert & Steenbeek) First thesis on Mind, Brain, and Education science The reading brain New societies embrace link between neuroscience and education Mind, Brain, Education Journal (Editors: Kurt Fisher and David Daniel) 2007: Mind, Brain, and Education journal is Recognized by the Association of American Publishers as Best New Journal “Why Mind, Brain, and Education? Why Now?” (Fischer, Daniel, Immordino-Yang, Stern, Battro & Koizumi) First International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA Founding of the International Mind, Brain, and Education Society Founding Members (Executive): Kurt Fisher, David Daniel, Antonio Battro, Usha Goswami, Hideaki Koizumi, Juliana Paré-Blagoev, Donna Coch. (Advisors): Daniel Cardinali, Antonio Damasio, Kevin Dunbar, John Gabrieli, Howard Gardner, Tami Katzir, Kenneth Kosik, Pierre Léna, Bruce McCandliss, Laura-Ann Petitto, David Rose, Ann Rosenfeld, Courtney Ross, Manfred Spitzer, Paul van Geert, Maryanne Wol, Namhee Wu Mind, Brain, and Education in Reading Disorders (Fischer, Holmes Bernstein & Immordino-Yang [Eds.]) The Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning (Fischer & Immordino-Yang, [Ed.]) “Getting to the Heart of the Brain: Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Explore the Nature of Human Ability and Performance” (Kalbfleisch) Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development (Coch, Fischer & Dawson) “We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education” (Immordino-Yang & Damasio) The Number Sense (Deahaene) The Brain That Changes Itself (Doidge) Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do (Darling-Hammond & Bransford) Educating the Human Brain (Posner & Rothbart) “A First Course in Mind, Brain, and Education” (Blake & Gardner) Neurodiversity (Glannon) Neurodiversity (Jureccic) Birth of Mind, Brain, and Education science (distinct from Educational Neuroscience and Neuroeducation) Neuroplasticity Neurodiversity First International Delphi survey on Mind, Brain, and Education (Tokuhama-Espinosa) The Brain Science Podcast was launched Neuroethics (Illes) Mindsets: The New Psychology of Success (Dweck) “Neuroscience and Education: From Research To Practice?” (Goswami) The Neuroscience of Human Relationships: Attachment and the Developing Social Brain (Cozolino) 2006: “Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Education and Cognitive Neuroscience” (Ansari & Coch) 2006: “Constructing 21st-century Teacher Education” (Darling-Hammond) 2006: “Overlapping and Nonoverlapping Brain Regions for Theory of Mind and Self reflection in Individual Subjects” (Saxe, Moran, Scholz & Gabrieli) “Age-related Changes in Brain Activity Across the Adult Lifespan” (Grady, Springer, Hongwanishkul, McIntonsh & Wincocur) “Brain-compatible Learning: Fad or Foundation? Neuroscience Points to Better Strategies for Educators, but Sorting Out Claims on Brain-Based Programs is Essential” (Wolfe) “Is Neuroscience a Learning Science?” (Varma, Schwartz & McCandliss) First International Delphi survey on Mind, Brain, and Education science Mindsets Theory of Mind in the Brain Life-long Learning 2004: “Cognitive Neuroscience: Implications For Education?” (Geake) 2004: Academic programs in the field founded at the University of Cambridge’s Program in Psychology and Neuroscience in Education 2004: Soul Made Flesh (Carl Zimmer) 2004: Right-brain, left-brain neuromyth debunked (Geake; Goswami) 2004: Academic programs in the field founded at the Transfer Centre for Neuroscience and Learning in Ulm, Germany new Master’s degree 2004: Scientific American, the oldest continuously publishing magazine in the US launches Scientific American Mind to teacher the general public about the brain 2004: “Neuroscience and Education” (Goswami) 2004: Sleep-dependent learning and memory consoledation established by Walker and Stickgold 2004: Gut-Brain Axis introduced (Konturek, Konturek, Pawlik & Brzozowski; Riediger, Zuend, Becskei, & Lutz) 2005: The Learning Brain: Lessons For Education (Blakemore & Frith) 2005: Begin of the debate on “the bilingual edge” for executive functions 2005: Academic programs in the field founded in Europe: Bristol University’s Centre for Neuroscience and Education and The Learning Lab in Denmark 2005: Academic programs in the field founded in the United States: University of Texas at Arlington and University of Southern California 2005: Academic programs in China: Beijing Normal University and Southeast University in Nanjing 2005: Delusions of Gender (Fine) debunks gender specialization of brains (Fine) 2005: Habits of Mind (Costa & Kallick) Increased public interest in the brain. New programs in MBE Mind-Body Balance and Gut-Brain Axis 2002: Understanding the Brain: Towards a New Learning Science (OECD) 2002: Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind (1st ed). (Gazzaniga, Ivry & Mangun) 2002: First Conference on Neuroethics 2002: “Do You Know Your Brain? A Survey on Public Neuroscience Literacy at the Closing of the Decade of the Brain” 2003: Nature via Nurture (Ridley) 2003: “The Visual Word Form Area: Expertise for Reading in the Fusiform Gyrus” (McCandliss, Cohen & Dehaene) 2003: Brain Literacy For Educators and Psychologists (Berninger & Richards) 2002: Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy 2003: Making Thinking Visible (Perkins) Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroethics 2000: How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School published by the National Research Council and Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education 2000: From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The science of Early Childhood Development (Shonkoff & Phillips [Eds.]) 2000: Eric Kandel received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for identifying memory storage in neurons based on his research in molecular neurobiology 2001: Harvard University launched its Master’s Program in Mind, Brain, and Education Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants (Prensky) 2001: “Characterizing the Neural Mechanisms of Skill Learning and Repetition Priming” (Poldrak & Gabrieli) 2001: Mechanisms of Cognitive Development: Behavioral and Neural Perspective (McClelland & Siegler) 2001: “Brain Based Teaching: Fad or Promising Teaching Method” (Winters) 2001: Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice (Patricia Wolfe) First academic programs in Mind, Brain, and Education science, Educational Neuroscience, Neuroeducation No Child Left Behind 1990: First article on “Emotional Intelligence” (Salovey & Mayer) 1995: Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ (Goleman) 1991: Launch of The Journal of the Learning Sciences 1992: Giacomo Rizzolatti describes mirror neurons In 2014 Special issue on “Mirror Neuron Research: Past, Present and Future” (Ferrai & Rizzolatti): as of yet, no accepted model 1996: Antonio Damasio published on the “somatic marker hypothesis of emotions, cognition, and decision-making” 1997: Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life (Csikszentmihalyi) 1998: Understanding By Design (Wiggins & McTighe) 1990s: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans developed with BOLD (bloodoxygen level dependent) contrast by Seiji Ogawa 1990: “The Neuroscience of Education: More Research Is Needed Before Application” (McCall, 1990) 1996-2000: Crosscultural neuropsychology gave way to cultural neuroscience. “Culture and the Self: Implications For Cognition, Emotion and Motivation” (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) 1994: “The Body Keeps Score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of posttraumatic stress” (book: 2014) (Van der Kolk) 1995: Event-related optical signal (EROS) developed by Gabriele and Monica Fabiani 1995: Radical Constructivism: A Way of Knowing and Learning (von Glaserfeld) 1997: How The Mind Works (Steven Pinker) 1998: Martin Seligman introduces concept of “positive psychology” to American Psychological Association 1999: Diffuse optical imaging (DOI using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed by F.F. Jöbsis starting in 1977 and perfected in 1999 1996-2001: Establishment of sleep-dependent neural plasticity (e.g., Peigneux, Laureys, Delbeuck & Maquet, 2001), including naps (Mednick, Nakayama & Stickgold, 2003) 1999: First Learning & the Brain Conference held in Boston 1990: First Ted Talk launched by Richard Saul Wurman 1999: The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understand- ing of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning (Bruer) 1999: “In Search of ...Brain-Based Education” (Bruer) 1999: “Assessing the Decade of the Brain” (Jones & Mendell) 1999: The Hole in the Wall Project (Sugata Mitra): Selforganizing groups of children can teach themselves to learn often better and faster than schools The “Decade of the Brain” Cognitivism Emotional Intelligence Relationship between Affect and Cognition Caution about Neuroscience in Education Positive Psychology 1997: “Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far” (Bruer) 1998: “The Educational Relevance of Research in Cognitive Neuroscience” (Byrnes & Fox) 1999: The Mathematical Brain (Butterworth) 1983: Birth of Internet Protocols and “networks of networks” 1985: The Man Who Mistook His Wife For a Hat (Oliver Saks) 1987: The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding (Maturana & Varela) 1980s: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) neuroimaging developed based on original work by Kuhl and Edwards in 1963 1988: “Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning" suggested by John Sweller: The brain requires energy for working memory and attention to function well. Led to the myth of multitasking being debunked in 2008 (Crenshaw; Rosen) 1983: Frames of Mind (Howard Gardner): Groundbreaking Multiple Intelligences Theory 1983: Human Brain and Human Learning (Hart): Designing an educational experience without knowledge of the brain is like designing a glove without knowledge of the hand Internet Multiple Intelligence Theory Cognitive Load Theory First mention of “brain-based learning” 1971: “Resiliency” used for first time related to adverse childhood effects on learning (Wener) 1974: Baddley introduces the concept of “working memory” (processes) as different from “short-term” (items) memory 1975: First mention of “cognitive control” later known as Executive Functions“ (Posner) 1978: The Integrated Mind (Gazzaniga & LeDoux, 1978) 1970: The first Marshmallow Test was published: “Attention in Delay of Gratification” (Mischel & Ebbesen) 1976: The term Cognitive Neuroscience was coined by George Miller and Michael Gazzaniga 1970s: Computer Axial Tomography (CAT scans) developed by Allan McLeod Cormack and Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield 1970s Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) developed by Sir Peter Mansfield, Paul Lauterbur and Raymond Damadian 1970: The Bisected Brain (Michael S. Gazzaniga) 1971: Society For Neuroscience first annual meeting 1975: How The Brain Works (Leslie A Hart) 1978: Social constructivism introduced (Mind in Society, Vygotsky); introduction of Vygotsky’s “Zone of Proximal Development” 1978: “The New ‘Brain’ Concept of Learning” (Leslie A. Hart) Improved neuro imaging and technology Society for Neuroscience founded Term “Cognitive Neuroscience” coined Resiliency 1964: The first Psychobiology Department in the US was founded at UC Irvine. 1966: The first Department of Neuroscience founded at the Harvard Medical School 1962: Thought and Language (originally “Thought and Word”) (Vygotsky) 1961: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) developed by James Robertson and his associates. First PET scans of the human brain produced about 1978. 1962: Higher Cortical Functions in Man by Alexander Luria, the “father” of neuropsychological assessment 1968: Magnetoen- cephalography (MEG) developed by David Cohen 1969: The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book about a Vast Memory 1960: Jerome Bruner’s Spiral Curriculum theory in The Process of Education 1960s: Berkeley Free School Movement 1969: Freedom to Learn (Rogers & Freiberg) 1965: Operation Head Start began prompted by studies showing the influence of early life experiences on future school learning 1969: Sesame Street created Discovery- and Inquiry-based Learning Beginning of Translational Research from Medicine to Education Complexity Theory 1936: First frontal lobotomy by Walter Freeman and James Watts 1937: Wilder Graves Penfield and Edwin Boldrey’s conception of the Cortical Homunculus 1938: B.F. Skinner: Operant conditioning shown in “Skinner Box” 1943: "A Theory of Human Motivation" (Maslow) 1949 Donald Hebb suggests the concept that “neurons that fire together wire together" in Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) 1959: “Intelligence, Brain Function and the Theory of Mind” (Donald O. Hebb) 1950 Karl Lashley’s “In Search of the Engram” Operant conditioning Mastery Learning Beginning of the study of cognitive processes in the brain René Descartes (1596–1650) replaced the Platonic concept of a tripartite soul with a single soul that he called "the mind" c. 1508 “The Brain and Cranial Nerves” drawn by Leonardo da Vinci 1543: Andreas Vesalius’ “Base of the Brain” 1635: The Boston Latin School was founded as the first public school in the United States Christopher Wren’s engravings for Thomas Willis’ (1664) Cerebri anatome (The Anatomy of the Brain) John Locke’s Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693) established the link between developmental psychology and education 1687: Principles of the scientific method laid out in Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1791: Immanuel Kant’s taxonomy on the cognitive processes of the mind in his book, Critique of Pure Reason 1749: David Hartley publishes Observations of Man, the first English work using the word "psychology" 1744: suggested use of electroconvulsive therapy for mental illness (Zuschrift an Seine Zuhörer by Kruger) Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1821) promoted "Learning by head, hand and heart" 1796: Phrenology was a popular pseudoscience Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote Emile (1762), proposing one of the first childcentric visions of education Philosophy + Psychology + Education Wilhelm Wundt wrote the Principles of Physiological Psychology (1873–1874) 1859: Origin of Species, by Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution 1883: Francis Galton first discussed the idea of Nature vs. Nurture 1890: Psychoanalysis born (Sigmund Freud) 1894: Angleo Moss develops human circulation balance to measure blood flow during emotional and intellectual activity 1819: Ventriculography (x-rays of ventricular system) developed by Walter Dandy 1838 Cell Theory finally accepted Laterization Theory impulsed by discovery of Broca’s Area (1862) and Wernicke’s Area (1874). These areas were later recognized as key “hubs” within networks rather than where language itself is located. 1890: William James wrote Principles of Psychology 1884: Francis Galton coined the term Eugenics and first debated heritable intelligence theories 1885: Ebbinhaus Forgetting Curve 1896: Mark Baldwin (The Baldwin Effect), A New Factor in Evolution showed the impact of learned behavior on evolution through natural selection 1873 Golgi stains of cells 1886 Wilhelm His and August Forel proposed that the neuron and its connections might be an independent unit within the nervous system 1888 Ramón y Cajal: all brains have neuronal circuits 1891 Wilhelm Waldeyer coined the term “neuron” and introduced the “neuron doctrine” First formalized school houses 1852: Horace Mann argued for universal public education in the United States 1840: The term “kindergarten” (“garden of children”) was coined by Friedrich Fröbel William James Talks to Teachers (1899) Theory of Evolution Birth of Eugenics First consideration of Epigenetics Psychoanalysis 1901: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov established classical conditioning 1906: The Integrative Action of the Nervous System (Sherrington) 1908: Korbinian Brodmann’s cortical map 1913: John B. Watson Behaviorism 1907: Montessori Method of Education 1905: First intelligence test (Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon) 1924: First human Electroencephalography (EEG) documented by Hans Berger 1907 John Dewey’s Lab School established 1927: Egas Moniz developed cerebral angiography to image blood vessels in and around the brain Classical conditioning Behaviorism Specialization of academic fields Localizationalism of brain functions Printing Press (broader and deeper communication) Jehan Yperman, the first Dutch medical writer, identified three functional areas of the brain including the front responsible for discrimination of visual, gustatory and olfactory senses, the middle for intelligence and hearing, and the posterior for memory De Cyrugie (1310) Printing presses common by the 14th c., which improved communication Magnus Hundt (1449-1519) published anatomical illustrations depicting brain covering special senses, and ventricular systems (Antropologium de hominis dignitate, natura, et proprietatbus: de elementis, partibus, et membris humani corpis) c. 1490: Leonardo da Vinci, “Sagittal and Horizontal Sections of the Human Head compared with an Onion” Closure of the Academy of Athens by Justhian I in 529 CE Story-telling and parables main form of instruction Augustine (354-430 BC): the "cell doctrine of brain functioning" (the faculties of mind were contained within the ventricular system of the brain) Galen (129-200 BC) On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato: cerebellum as the area involved in motor functions and the cerebrum as the area involved in sensory processing Unification of religion and science Oral tradition, informalFirst mention of the word “brain” in Egyptian hieroglyphics found in the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (c.1700 BC) Aristotle (384-322 BCE), Plato’s student, indicated that sensory input was the foundation of all knowledge. First book on psychology, De Anima (350 BCE) In Hippocrates’s (460-370 BCE) view, there are four humours: the brain was not only considered the seat of intelligence, sensory perception and motor control but it was also regarded as the source of pleasure and pain, the origin of emotions, and the font of moral judgment and aesthetic experiences Plato (428-348 BCE), Socrates’s student: the brain was a "mental wax" 387 BCE Plato’s founding of The Academy of Athens Socrates (470-399 BCE), first moral philosopher and father of one of the most renowned educational methodologies, the Socratic Method The Greeks Alcmaeion (500 BCE) was the first to identify the brain as a source of human consciousness, and subscribed to what is now called “the brain hypothesis” or “encephalocentrism theory” Taosim (500-200BCE), and its main writings, I Ching (The Book of Changes), and Tao Te Ching (The Way to Virtue) suggested that human behavior should be better aligned with nature and natural systems. Its symbol, the Yin and the Yang, portray this desirable balance Nepali-born Buddha (“The Awakened” or “Enlightened One”) (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE) taught about the Middle Way (later known in Socrates’ time as “everything in moderation”). Became one of the earliest references to the mind-body balance and influence on learning Confucius (551-479 BCE) and his ideas captured postmortem in Hundred Schools of Thought (6th-221BCE) planted the seeds of early reflective thinking and core concepts of Theory of Mind. Confucius is said to have been a student of Lao Tzu and to have studied Buddha Transdisciplinarity (joint study of Philosophy, Education and Medicine) Golden Age of Chinese Philosophy First universities Scientific Method Church Doctrine based on St. Augustine’s writings on the brain: Ideas began in cell one (imagination), were manipulated in cell two (reasoning), and then stored in cell three (memory) Ali Ibn Abbas/Haly Abbas (949-982 BC): The Perfect Book of the Art of Medicine including a chapter on neurology, explaining cranial nerves and cranial sutures c. 965 - c. 1040 Al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen) “inventor of scientific method” The first universities in the world (Karueein [859 BC] in Morocco; Oxford [1096 BC] in the UK; Bologna [1088 BC in Italy]), looked similar to churches in Europe, and mosques in the Middle East M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E M B H E

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