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The early fracture of the unity of human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights into a focus on social economic and cultural rights on the one hand, and on political and civil rights on the other has deep implications for the focus and practice of human rights in context, especially within home states in multinational enterprise supply chain systems. These differences are more pronounced where the political context of home states may be different from accepted forms common in developed states. This is particularly the case with two of the most important emerging states--India and China. India provides an example of the approach to human rights protection in which economic and social rights are vindicated through the application of political and civil rights within a state in which individual rights are understood as constraints against state power and courts serve a critical mediating role. In China, on the other hand, civil and political rights are vindicated through the state and its role in ensuring the provision of social, economic and cultural rights through the administrative apparatus of the state, within a state in which individual welfare is understood as a core obligation fo the state to be vindicated through governmental action. These differences have important ramification for the way in which international human rights frameworks, like the UN Guiding Principles, may be successfully transposed in context. These are explored in the paper through examples from both states.