Indonesia• Introducing Indonesia • Socio-Economic Data • ICT related data• Strengths and weaknesses to development• ICT Policy• Overview ICT progress• ICT Impact on National Development• Key Implementation challenges• Lesson learned
Socio-Economic Data • Population: 248.6 Mio • 1.9 Mio sq km • Spread across 17,508 islands • 3 time zones • 12.5 % lives below poverty line • Human Development Index: Rank 124 • Literacy Rates: age 15 and over can read and write • total population: 90.4% • male: 94% • female: 86.8% (2004 est.) • GDP (ppp): 1.139 trillion • Inflation Rate: 5.4 % • Unemployment rate: 6.6 %
ICT related data Palapa Ring: • Existing Networks • New Networks • National optical fibre ring • Submarine cable network • 35,000 km • 1.5 billion USD• E-readiness ranking: 65• Teledensity: 91.7 %
Strengths• A vast polyglot nation - connected with different countries• Government made economic advances - reforms in many aspects• Good financial condition - influenced less in global financial crisis
Challenges• Lack of professionals in ICT development• Lack of infrastructure - insufficient funding• Lack of a national standard for ICT products - a complex regulatory environment• Unequal resources distribution among regions - a country on an archipelago• Software piracy
National ICT policyThe National ICT Council has seven flagship programs:• e-Education• e-Procurement• e-Budge• National Single Window (NSW)• Single Identity Number (SIN) or National Identity Number (NIN)• Palapa Ring• Software legalization program
Some specific programsThe USO - Universal ServiceObligation program• build basic telephone infrastructure in 38,741 villages• at least one phone line per village by 2010• Internet access for at least 50 percent of the villages by 2015
Some specific programsThe Palapa Ring broadband fiberoptic (surrounding the entire Indonesian archipelago）• accelerate access• increase telecommunication quality• ensure universal availability of the telecommunications infrastructure
Overview of An ICTInitiative/Project/InnovationBackground:• In order to implement USO program ▫ Project in Internet Access to Sub district and Rural Area ▫ Palapa Ring – broadband fiber optic
Source: http://www.ptweb.co.id/ Project in Internet Access to Sub district and Rural Area • Internet Access to Rural (Desa PINTER – Punya Internet) • To eliminate gap of information to rural communities by implementing Pilot Project to 131 Connection Provider – Satuan Sambungan Layanan (SSL) in 32 provinces.. Source: http://www.ptweb.co.id/
Source: http://www.ptweb.co.id/ Project in Internet Access to Sub district and Rural Area • Mobile Internet Access (M- PLIK) • Mobile Pusat Layanan Internet Kecamatan (M-PLIK) - provide Internet access by using car to cover sub districts that haven’t been reached by information and Internet access with affordable, secure, and fast access. • Infrastructure and supported tools: 1. land transportation : van 2. Computer set 3. Routing, switch, electric generator, UPS 4. LCD TV 32 inch 5. Speaker 6. GPS 7. DVD player and home theater system Source: http://mplikkabupatenbanjar.blogspot.co.uk/
Source: http://www.ptweb.co.id/ Project in Internet Access to Sub district and Rural Area • Mobile Internet Access (M-PLIK) • 1.907 M-PLIK targeted of 32 provinces • 846 M-PLIK car has n been operated by December, 31 2011. • Users only have to pay Rp. 1.500/hour or equal to £ 0,1 /hours for 256kbp internet using a parabola access which is three times cheaper than internet kiosk. • M-PLIK operates from 08.30 am to 03.30 pm and after 10 Source: http://mplikkabupatenbanjar.blogspot.co.uk/ days moves to another area. Source: http://www.kompinia.com/
Source: http://www.ptweb.co.id/ Palapa Ring • Establishing Fiber Optic Back Bone • At the end of 2011, there are 323 of 497 (64,98%) districts has been connected with Backbone Palapa Ring, and will be 85% in 2014.
Impact to National Development Direct Impact • Increase the internet penetration within country • Increase information delivery to rural communities with affordable and fast access of internet • Help in public service such as e-identity or e-KTP service, statistic survey, information dissemination of government program, school, commodity prices, local potential , and tourism (Fajar Newspaper July 2012)
Impact to National Development Indirect Impact • Economic : Increasing economic growth - Internet contribute 1,6 % of Gross Domestic Product in Indonesia, compare to liquefied natural gas that contribute 1,4% (Delloite Access Economic Cited in Ministry of Communication and Information News, 2012) - Information and Communication Technology sector (ICT) in Indonesia is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy contributing most to GDP growth rate (around 16%) than any other sector. (Djalil, ICT Expert in interviewed of, 2007) • Health: Improved quality and effectiveness of government and private health systems Indonesia GHI Country Strategy :Improved Health Impact through Collaboration (HSWG Health Sector Working Group,August 2011)
Key Implementation Challenges M-PLIK Project Resource in Local Government • Lack of budget for daily operation in local government to pay driver, operator, and maintenance And competent human resource for operate M-PLIK • It was happened in Gorontalo (a province in east ), the Governor Province refused 50 units of M-PLIK (Liputan 6 New, October 2012). Issues on Procurement Process • Suspicion on Corruption - delay on 174 units which still not finish (Jakarta Newspaper, 2012). The bidding winner for M-PLIK was blamed and suspicious on direct appointment of procurement issues.
Lesson learned• We learn that ICT could become a major contributor for increasing in GDP rates 10% increase in a nation’s broadband access, the country will experience a 1.3% increase in their economic growth (Kelly – Policy Expert at World Bank Cited in Savageu Blog, 2010)• We figure out that internet access is important for all of citizens including the rural communities• Indonesia can be a model for another country which consists of many islands and developing countries
References• C.I.A. (2012) The World Fact Book - Indonesia, Central Intelligence Agency [Online], Available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html [Accessed: 29 October 2012]• The Economist (2009) E-readiness ranking 2009, The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited [Online], Available: http://graphics.eiu.com/pdf/E-readiness%20rankings.pdf [Accessed: 29 October 2012]• Savageau, John (2010) Data Center Consolidation and Cloud Computing in Indonesia, John Savageaus Technology Innovation Topics [Online], Available: http://johnsavageau.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/palapa_ring_project.jpg [Accessed: 29 October 2012]• TT-tel (2012) Data Center Consolidation and Cloud Computing in Indonesia, PT.Tiara Titian Telekomunikasi (TT- Tel) [Online], Available: http://www.tt-tel.com/info/cso_print.html [Accessed: 29 October 2012]• Ediana, S. Soegijardjo, S. Tati, L.R.M. & Suhartono, T. (2006) ‘Development of a Mobile Telemedicine System with Multi Communication Links for Urban and Rural Areas in Indonesia’, in 3rd Kuala Lumpur International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2006, Fatimah, I. Noor, A.A.O. Juliana, U. & Nahrizul, A.K. (eds), Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 660-663.• SEACOOP. (2010) ICT policies, programmes and research priorities in the ASEAN Countries, SEACOOP, Southeast Asia.• Fajar Newspaper 2012 Sulsel Dapat Jatah 105 Unit Mobil Available: http://www.fajar.co.id/ [Accessed: 29 October 2012].• Koran Jakarta. 2012 Proyek Telekomunikasi Tersendat. Available: m.koran-jakarta.com• Liputan 6 News. 2012 Gubernur Gorontalo Tolak Mobil Internet dari Jakarta Available: news.liputan6.com [Accessed: 29 October 2012].
References• Long, Geoff., Purbo, W. Onno. 1998 Indonesia : Information Technology Activities. Available: http://onno.vlsm.org, [Accessed: 28 October 2012].• Ministry of Communication and Information Technology of Indonesia. 2011 Report of Accountability of Government Institution Ministry of Communication and Informatics 2011, Available: http://publikasi.kominfo.go.id, [Accessed: 29 October 2012].• Goswami, Divakar. 2007 Evaluating ICT policy in Indonesia: Interview with LIRNEasia researcher Available: http://lirneasia.net/.• Ministry of Communication and Information Technology of Indonesia, Indonesian Telematics Software Solution. 2010 Indonesia Toward Green IT, Eco-Innovation ICT Conference, Jakarta.• Report of Accountability of Government Institution Ministry of Communication and Informatics 2011• Rural Development and Natural Resources Sector. 2005 Indonesia: Telecenter Evaluation Report, The World Bank East Asia and Pacific Region. Available: www-wds.worldbank.org [Accessed: 28 October 2012]• Savageau, John. 2010 Indonesia’s ICT Policy Provides a Success Story for Developing Countries, Available at: http://john-savageau.com [Accessed: 29 October 2012]