2. • Any fuel whose energy is obtained through a process of
biological carbon fixation known as biofuel.
• are designed to replace gasoline, diesel fuel and coal,
which are called “fossil fuels” because they are made
from animals and plants that died millions of years ago.
• Mainly derived from biomass or bio waste.
1890s Rudolf Diesel was a first person who made biodiesel from vegetable oil.
In 1970s and 1980s environmental protection agency EPA situated in America suggested
that fuel should be free from sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.
In 1998 EPA allowed the production of biofuel on commercial level which was the
alternative source of the petrol.
In 2010 the production of biofuels reaches up to 105 billion liters worldwide.
In 2011, European countries were the largest that made biodiesel almost about 53%.
The international Energy Agency set a goal to reduce the usage of petroleum and coal and
will be switched on to biofuels till 2050
4. Some of the agricultural products that are specially grown for the production of biofuels are:
United States- switchgrass, soybeans and corn
Europe- sugar beet and wheat
China- cassava and sorghum
Asia- miscanthus and palm oil
Pakistan and India- jatropha
SOURCES OF BIOFUELS
9. •First generation biofuels are produced
directly from food crops.
•The biofuel is ultimately derived from the
starch, sugar, animal fats, and vegetable oil
that these crops provide.
•Corn, wheat, and sugar cane are the most
commonly used first generation biofuel feed
FIRST GENERATION BIOFUELS
• Corn is the primary source of the world's fuel ethanol
and most of that corn comes from the United States.
• As of 2012, more than 40% of the US corn crop was
being used to produce corn ethanol, though not all of
ethanol is used as biofuel.
• Current requirements by the United States government
require that roughly 36 billion gallons of renewable biofuel
can be produced in 2013.
11. • Second generation biofuels are also known as
• The only time the food crops can act as second
generation biofuels is if they have already fulfilled
their food purpose.
• For instance, waste vegetable oil is a second generation
biofuels because it has already been used and is no
longer fit for human consumption.
12. • Third generation of biofuel derived from algae and
• Cultivable land not required.
• Fastest growing feedstock among all other sources.
• Biochemical & thermochemical methods are
• Extensive downstream processing such as dewatering
THIRD GENERATION BIOFUELS
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• In fourth generation biofuels Algae is
modified via genetic engineering to alter the
properties & cellular metabolism.
• More CO2 capture ability.
• Higher production rate.
• High yield with high lipid containing algae.
• It is used as a biofuel alternative to gasoline
• Feedstock: corn, sugarcane, etc.
• Ethanol can be mass-produced by fermentation of sugar or by
hydration of ethylene (ethene CH2=CH2) from petroleum and
• Colorless and clear liquid.
• Bio-ethanol is a renewable resource because it is
manufactured from crops.
• Bioethanol is carbon neutral.
• On combustion, Bioethanol emits less greenhouse
• In Bioethanol fuel, high octane additives are
reduced or avoided.
• Bio-ethanol produces less amount of carbon
• The number of arable land required to grow the
crops is immense.
• Farmers may sacrifice food crops, and this may
lead to an increase in food price all over the world.
• The energy density of bioethanol is less when
compared to petrol.
• Ethanol is hygroscopic in nature. This means it
absorbs water from the air.
Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel, is made from re new able biological
sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats.
Liquid usually yellow to dark brown and has high boiling point.
It is a mixture of fatty acid alkyl esters obtained by transesterification
Triglycerides are converted to diglycerides
Diglycerides to monoglycerides
Monoglyceride to esters (biodiesel) and glycerol (byproduct)
• Biogas is a fuel used as domestic purpose.
• Obtained from cow manure, fruit and vegetable waste
• A naturally occurring gas formed as a byproduct of the
breakdown of organic materials in an anaerobic environment.
• Major components:
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•Biogas is Eco-Friendly
•Biogas Generation Reduces Soil and Water
•Biogas Generation Produces Organic Fertilize
•It's A Simple and Low-Cost Technology
•Healthy Cooking Alternative
•Few Technological Advancements
•Effect of Temperature on Biogas Production
•Less Suitable For Dense Metropolitan Areas
ADVANTAGES AND DISATVANTGES OF BIOGAS
25. ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF BIOFUELS
• Energy Efficiency. One of the primary benefits of
using biodiesel is energy efficiency
• Reducing Foreign Oil Dependency
• Health Benefits
• Positive Economic Impact
• Reducing Greenhouse Gases
• High-Quality Engine Performance
• High Cost of Production. Even with all the benefits
of biofuels, they are pretty expensive to produce in
the current market. ...
• Use of Fertilizers
• Shortage of Food
• Industrial Pollution
• Water Misuse
• Changes in Land Use.
Biofuels can be defined as solid, liquid or gas fuel derived from recently dead biological material which differ
it from fossil fuels that derived from long dead biological material.
Biofuels production and consumption will contribute in solving the global warming. It ensures that the natural
Carbon cycle to be 100% achieved.
Agriculture sources produce many types of agro fuel, but the two main products are: ethanol and biodiesel.
Ethanol is produced from sugar crops, starches and cellulose. It produced by fermentation process of materials
containing sugar. While biodiesel is produced from soybean, oils, seed oils and fats.
Many biofuels are now produced from organic wastes such as biodiesel which produced from cooking oils,
methane from anaerobic digestion and ethanol from wood waste.
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BD, Hou HJ, Allakhverdiev SI. Biofuel production: challenges and opportunities. International Journal of
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1;23(6):519-67. Davis SC, Parton WJ, Grosso SJ, Keough C, Marx E, Adler PR, DeLucia EH.
• Impact of second‐generation biofuel agriculture on greenhouse‐gas emissions in the corn‐growing regions of
the US. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2012 Mar;10(2):69-74.
• Arshad M, Zia MA, Shah FA, Ahmad M. An overview of biofuel. Perspectives on water usage for biofuels