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Hypothalamus

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Hypothalamus

  1. 1. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM<br />
  2. 2. DEFINITION<br />Ductless gland<br />Exerts chemical control over the human body<br />Maintains homeostasis<br />Acts with nervous system to coordinate the body's activities<br />Uses chemical messengers called hormones that are transported by the circulatory system (blood)<br />
  3. 3. HORMONES<br />AMINO ACIDS- simplest form<br />- epinephrine and norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin<br />PROTEIN HORMONES – insulin and gonad<br />STEROID HORMONES- lipids<br />-cortisol, estrogen and testosterone <br />
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  5. 5. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK<br />Chemical control of the body functions <br />When the concentrations of a particular hormone reaches a certain level in the body, the endocrine gland that secreted that hormone is inhibited (the negative feedback) <br />The secretion of that hormone decreases significantly<br />
  6. 6. HYPOTHALAMUS<br />
  7. 7. DEFINITION<br />Inferior part of the diencephalon <br />*DIENCEPHALON- one of the major parts of the brain containing the thalamus and hypothalamus<br /> Control center of all autonomic regulatory activities of the body<br />
  8. 8. Functions:<br />Main function is homeostasis<br />*HOMEOSTASIS - maintaining the body’s internal environment<br />Plays a major role in controlling the secretions from the pituitary gland<br /> * INFUNDIBULUM – connects the floor of the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland<br /> Sends neural and chemical signals to the pituitary gland<br />
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  13. 13. CHEMICAL SIGNALS<br />Releasing Hormones<br /><ul><li>Main purpose is to control the release of another hormone
  14. 14. Stimulates the release of hormones
  15. 15. Capillary bed, portal vein, receptors</li></ul>Inhibitory Hormones<br /><ul><li>Inhibits release of hormones from another structure
  16. 16. convey the hormones through the pituitary stalk into the anterior pituitary</li></li></ul><li>RELEASING HORMONES<br />Thyrotropin-releasing hormone<br /><ul><li> Stimulates the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the pituitary
  17. 17. Secretion of another pituitary hormone called prolactin
  18. 18. Involved in the control of body temperature</li></li></ul><li>RELEASING HORMONES<br />Gonadotropin-releasing hormone<br /><ul><li>Stimulates the synthesis and release of the two pituitary gonadotropins
  19. 19. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  20. 20. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  21. 21. Stimulates ovulation in the female ovary
  22. 22. Stimulates synthesis of testosterone to maintain sperm cell production </li></li></ul><li>RELEASING HORMONES<br />Adrenocorticotropic hormone<br /><ul><li>Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete the hormone, cortisol
  23. 23. Growth hormone-releasing hormone
  24. 24. Stimulates cell metabolism in most tissues of the body causing cells to divide and increase in size
  25. 25. Stimulates growth of bones and muscles</li></li></ul><li>RELEASING HORMONES<br /><ul><li>Oxytocin
  26. 26. Contraction of smooth muscles in the wall of the uterus</li></li></ul><li>Vasopressin<br /><ul><li> Controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue's permeability</li></li></ul><li>INHIBITING HORMONES<br />Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GIH)<br /><ul><li>Also known as Somatostatin</li></ul>Prolactin release inhibiting hormone (PIH)<br /><ul><li>also known as Dopamine</li></li></ul><li>

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