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ADRENAL GLANDS
ADRENAL GLANDS• Paired organs• Flattened structure with half – moon shape• Surrounded by dense irregular connective  tissu...
ADRENAL GLANDS• Cells of both layers are grouped in cords  along capillaries• Dense CT capsule sends thin septa to the  in...
LOCATION     Lie near the superior poles of                kidneys
COMPOSITION              RED – Capsule              BLUE – Cortex              PINK – Medulla
COMPOSITION
ADRENAL CORTEX• Cells contain numerous lipid droplets• Spongyocytes• Cells that secrete glucocorticoids,  mineralocorticoi...
3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS• Zona glomerulosa    Occupy 15% of the cortex    Immediately beneath the capsule    Columnar or pyr...
ZONA GLOMERULOSA             RED – Cells of             zona glomerulosa             BLUE – sinusoidal             capilla...
3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS• Zona Fasciculata    Occupy 65% of the cortex    Intermediate zone    Polyhedral, often binucleated...
ZONA FASCICULATA              RED – Cells of zona               fasciculata              BLUE – sinusoidal               c...
3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS• Zona Reticularis    occupy 7% of the cortex    Innermost layer – lies between zona fasciculata     ...
3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS  Irregularly shaped cells with pyknotic nuclei –   suggesting cell death  Arranged in cords or clumps
ZONA RETICULARIS              RED – Cells of zona               reticularis              BLUE – Pigmented               ce...
CAPSULEZONA GLOMERULOSAZONA FASCICULATAZONA RETICULARIS        MEDULLA
HORMONES (CORTEX)• Mineralocorticoids• Glucocorticoids• Androgens
MINERALOCORTICOIDS• Secreted from adrenal cortex – zona  glomerulosa• Steroid hormones – aldosterone• Important for electr...
• Stimulates reabsorption of sodium and  increase potassium excretion into urine
GLUCOCORTICOIDS• Secreted from adrenal cortex – zona  fasciculata• Include the principal hormone - cortisol• Affect the me...
GLUCOCORTICOIDS  Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic   tissues  Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and   a...
GLUCOCORTICOIDS   Controlling secretion of cytokines• Promotes maturation of lung and  production of surfactant in fetal ...
ANDROGEN• Secreted from the adrenal cortex - zona  reticularis• Males: male sexual characteristics• Females: female sex dr...
MEDULLA• Lies in the center of the adrenal gland• Composed of polyhedral cells• Arranged in cords or clumps, supported by ...
MEDULLA          RED – Cells of          the medulla          BLUE – Cells of          the zona          reticularis      ...
MEDULLA          RED – Cells of the          medulla          BLUE – Sympathetic          ganglion cells          GREEN – ...
CHROMAFFIN CELLS• A neuroendocrine cell• Release neurotransmitter into systemic  circulation for systemic effects on multi...
E - CELLS• Characterized by containing small  granules• Store epinephrine
CHROMAFFIN CELLS
NE - CELLS• Characterized by larger granules  Contains dense cores giving an appearance   of eccentric “bulls - eyes”• Mo...
CHROMAFFIN CELLS
HORMONES (MEDULLA)• Catecholamines  Epinepherine  Norepinephrine
EPINEPHRINE• Prepares the body for “fright, fight, or  flight”• Increased heart action• Vasoconstriction in most systemic ...
NOREPINEPHRINE• Increases blood pressure• Stimulates respiration and gastrointestinal  contractions• Triggering release of...
Adrenal glands
Adrenal glands
Adrenal glands
Adrenal glands
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Adrenal glands

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Adrenal glands

  1. 1. ADRENAL GLANDS
  2. 2. ADRENAL GLANDS• Paired organs• Flattened structure with half – moon shape• Surrounded by dense irregular connective tissue – reticular fibers for support• Embedded in adipose tissue• 2 concentric layers: – Adrenal cortex – Adrenal medulla
  3. 3. ADRENAL GLANDS• Cells of both layers are grouped in cords along capillaries• Dense CT capsule sends thin septa to the interior of the gland – trabeculae
  4. 4. LOCATION Lie near the superior poles of kidneys
  5. 5. COMPOSITION RED – Capsule BLUE – Cortex PINK – Medulla
  6. 6. COMPOSITION
  7. 7. ADRENAL CORTEX• Cells contain numerous lipid droplets• Spongyocytes• Cells that secrete glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids• Has 3 concentric layers with fenestrated capillaries
  8. 8. 3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS• Zona glomerulosa Occupy 15% of the cortex Immediately beneath the capsule Columnar or pyramidal cells Arranged in closely packed, rounded, arched cords, or small clumps
  9. 9. ZONA GLOMERULOSA RED – Cells of zona glomerulosa BLUE – sinusoidal capillaries and endothelial cells
  10. 10. 3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS• Zona Fasciculata Occupy 65% of the cortex Intermediate zone Polyhedral, often binucleated cells with lipid droplets in their cytoplasm Cells are also called spongyocytes due to vacuolization Arranged in one or two – cell thick straight cords
  11. 11. ZONA FASCICULATA RED – Cells of zona fasciculata BLUE – sinusoidal capillaries
  12. 12. 3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS• Zona Reticularis occupy 7% of the cortex Innermost layer – lies between zona fasciculata and medulla Smaller cells disposed in irregular cords forming an anastomosing network Presence of lipofuscin pigment granules – large and numerous
  13. 13. 3 CONCENTRIC LAYERS Irregularly shaped cells with pyknotic nuclei – suggesting cell death Arranged in cords or clumps
  14. 14. ZONA RETICULARIS RED – Cells of zona reticularis BLUE – Pigmented cells
  15. 15. CAPSULEZONA GLOMERULOSAZONA FASCICULATAZONA RETICULARIS MEDULLA
  16. 16. HORMONES (CORTEX)• Mineralocorticoids• Glucocorticoids• Androgens
  17. 17. MINERALOCORTICOIDS• Secreted from adrenal cortex – zona glomerulosa• Steroid hormones – aldosterone• Important for electrolyte homeostasis and water balance• Act mainly on the distal kidney tubules, salivary glands, and sweat glands
  18. 18. • Stimulates reabsorption of sodium and increase potassium excretion into urine
  19. 19. GLUCOCORTICOIDS• Secreted from adrenal cortex – zona fasciculata• Include the principal hormone - cortisol• Affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids Stimulation of gluneogenesis
  20. 20. GLUCOCORTICOIDS Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown• Suppress immune response Destroying circulating lymphocytes Inhibiting mitotic activity
  21. 21. GLUCOCORTICOIDS  Controlling secretion of cytokines• Promotes maturation of lung and production of surfactant in fetal development
  22. 22. ANDROGEN• Secreted from the adrenal cortex - zona reticularis• Males: male sexual characteristics• Females: female sex drive• Dehydroepiandosterone Weak androgen Circulates the blood as a sulfate Exerts it actions after being converted to testosterone
  23. 23. MEDULLA• Lies in the center of the adrenal gland• Composed of polyhedral cells• Arranged in cords or clumps, supported by reticular fiber network• Composed of chromaffin cells• Secretes catecholamines• Contains sympathetic ganglion cells
  24. 24. MEDULLA RED – Cells of the medulla BLUE – Cells of the zona reticularis GREEN – Sympathetic ganglion cells
  25. 25. MEDULLA RED – Cells of the medulla BLUE – Sympathetic ganglion cells GREEN – Brown granules
  26. 26. CHROMAFFIN CELLS• A neuroendocrine cell• Release neurotransmitter into systemic circulation for systemic effects on multiple organs• Contains N and E cells Secretes Norepinephrine and Epinephrine respectively
  27. 27. E - CELLS• Characterized by containing small granules• Store epinephrine
  28. 28. CHROMAFFIN CELLS
  29. 29. NE - CELLS• Characterized by larger granules Contains dense cores giving an appearance of eccentric “bulls - eyes”• More intense chromaffin reaction• Store norepinephrine
  30. 30. CHROMAFFIN CELLS
  31. 31. HORMONES (MEDULLA)• Catecholamines Epinepherine Norepinephrine
  32. 32. EPINEPHRINE• Prepares the body for “fright, fight, or flight”• Increased heart action• Vasoconstriction in most systemic arteries and veins• Rate and depth of breathing increases• Force of muscular contraction is increased
  33. 33. NOREPINEPHRINE• Increases blood pressure• Stimulates respiration and gastrointestinal contractions• Triggering release of glucose• Suppress neuroinflammation• Increases blood pressure by increasing tension of muscles

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