Roadmap for the Trillion Sensor Universe -- a Gilt-hosted, Internet of Things talk by Dr. Janusz Bryzek
Roadmap for the
Trillion Sensor Universe
Dr. Janusz Bryzek
Chair, TSensors Summit
Vice President, MEMS and Sensing Solutions, Fairchild Semiconductor
New York, November 26, 2013
Warsaw University of Technology: MSEE and Ph.D.
Stanford University: Executive Management Program
Started 7 high-tech (MEMS) companies in Silicon Valley:
1982 IC Sensors
1995 Intelligent MicroSensor Technology
2000 Transparent Networks
2004 LV Sensors
(now Measurement Specialties)
(now General Electric)
(now Fairchild Semiconductor)
Performed due diligence for local VC firms and work as Board Member or
Advisor for over 40 startups.
Recognized as “Entrepreneur of the Year” by Arthur Young in 1989.
Recognized in the industry as Father of Sensors.
Awarded the Lifetime Achievement Awards:
By Sensors Magazine In 1994 and by MANCEF in 2003.
My field: MEMS (micromechanics) and NEMS (nanomechanics).
Selected MEMS Devices from my Companies
Catheter tip pressure
Microwave power meter
First fusion bonded
Shipped so far over
First DRIE based
First DRIE pressure sensor
1200 fiber block with lens array
Integrated 2D mirror
Tire pressure sensor
Tire pressure sensor module
Consumer inertial sensors
Million pixel optical
1000x1000 port optical switch
Quick look at VC funding
Introduction to Abundance
Overview of Trillion Sensor Universe
The Amazing Word of Sensor Based Products
Introduction: US VC Funding
The biggest global problems, such as hunger, lack
of medical care, lack of clean water and lack of
energy, can be solved in one generation (20
– Exponential technologies.
• Networked sensors are one of eight exponential
Global Goods and Services
– DIY (Do-it-Yourself) revolution.
– Unrivaled in history technophilanthropic force.
– The rising billion.
Biotechnology and bioinformatics
Nanomaterials and nanotechnology
Networks and sensors (45 trillion networked sensors in 20 years).
Digital manufacturing (3D printing) and infinite computing
DIY (Do-it-Yourself) revolution:
Power of individual innovators capable of “impossibles”.
E.g., flying into space (Burt Rattan) and sequencing human genome (Craig Venter).
Unrivaled in history technophilanthropic force:
– Funded by billionaires (Gates, Zuckenberg, Omidyars, Elon Musk, etc.).
The rising billion:
– Billion of the very poorest of the poor on earth is being plugged into global economy
through a global transportation network, Internet, microfinance and wireless
Rapid market evolution is expected to replace 40% of current Fortune 500
companies within 10 years…
By companies we didn‟t hear about yet.
* Peter Diamandis, November 2013
Why TSensors Movement
Abundance* movement is forecasting elimination of major global problems in
one generation, 20 to 30 years.
This will require (among others) 45 trillion sensors, many of which are not yet
Historical sensor development cycles from prototypes in academic labs to
volume production were 30 years.
Left to historical cycles, new sensor would delay Abundance.
TSensors movement is aiming at acceleration of sensor development cycles, to
TSensors Acceleration Approach
Invite visionaries to predict many of the new ultrahigh volume sensor based
applications to generate an upfront development focus.
Ultrahigh volumes are required to enable global impact.
2013 TSensors Summit collected the first set of such visions.
Convert visionary sensor applications into a limited number of TSensing
This will be a first step towards potential process standardization, maximizing the number of
supported applications for each platform.
Open the development challenges to crowd genius (global development
Perhaps form dedicated development organizations (startups) with Board or Advisory Board
including entrepreneurs with scars in sensor technology commercialization.
Facilitate funding the development of TSensing Platforms
Potentially include target customers, supply chain companies, crowdfunding, techno-philanthropic
organizations, Governments, academia-Government-industry consortia, Cooptition and Incentive
Competition (similar to XPrize Foundation‟s in multiple health sensing areas).
Trillion Sensors (TSensors) Visions
Mobile sensor market for volumes not
envisioned by leading market research
organizations in 2007, grew exponentially
212%/y between 2007 and 2012.
Several organizations created visions for a
continued growth to trillion(s).
Market research companies don‟t yet see it.
Explosion to trillion(s) is likely to be driven by new
applications not yet envisioned by leading market
Forecasting thus needs visionaries!
Global Tides Driving Demand for Sensors
Global (somewhat overlapping) tides driving demand for smart
• Transitioning to unPad like infrastructure.
• Bringing fitness, wellness and health monitoring to all of us.
• Improving health diagnostics and therapeutics while reducing cost.
Internet of Things
• Connecting devices around us through new network architecture to
enable low latency control.
• Deriving information about us (such as feelings) and around us.
CeNSE, Central Nervous System for the Earth, building global
• Five senses for computers in five years
Global Tides will Ride on Smart Systems
Smart Systems are defined by Harbor Research* as a fusion of computing,
communication and sensing.
Forecasted growth to trillions is for Smart Systems, not just sensors!
Enable people, machines, devices, sensors, and businesses to interact.
This enables new modes of collaboration and intelligence called “Smart
Truly connected world of machines, people, video streams, maps, newsfeeds, and
Convergence of physical & virtual worlds, thus enabling collective awareness,
creativity, and better decision making capabilities.
Many observers believe that this phenomenon will drive the largest growth
opportunity in the history of business.
Largest bull market over the next 20 years?
MEMS Migration into Mainstream
Can We Afford Trillion Sensors?
2023 global GDP should be
IoT alone is forecasted by Cisco
and GE around $15T by 2020.
15% of GDP!
Networked sensor market was
estimated by Cisco to reach $1T
Networked sensor cost $1.
We can afford trillion sensors at
the right price.
Global GDP could reach $100 trillion by 2023.
(Historical Data (blue) from Wikipedia. Extrapolation (red-pink) by
Bryzek). IoT forecast from Cisco and GE.
Jobs, Jobs, Jobs…
Assuming an average revenue per employee in developed countries at:
– $200,000/year for component companies
– $500,000/year (equal to 2011 NASDAQ 100 average) for smart system companies.
Assuming further, based on Cisco forecast:
– Average selling price of the wireless smart sensor at $1.
– Smart system selling price $15.
Trillion smart system would thus represent in 2023:
– 5 million new direct jobs in component industries.
– 30 million new direct jobs in system industries.
Assuming indirect jobs multiplier of 3, this would result in 105 million additional jobs,
for a total of 140 million jobs.
– Indirect job multiplier for knowledge workers has been between 2 and 4 (depending
– As a reference, the US created only 1.3M new jobs in the last 10 years, primarily in
Government and medical sectors.
Sensor based systems require a high-tech work force.
Majority of created jobs will likely be for knowledge workers.
An example of a sensor based system could be Apple‟s iPhone 4s, which had
the following breakdown of 2011 selling price:
– 3% ($14) cost of assembly (China)
– 32% ($178) cost of components (global)
– 66% ($368) Apple‟s share (US)
100% ($560) selling price
Most of “sensor and smart systems” jobs will likely be in industrialized countries.
Fortune Magazine 2011
Challenges for TSensors
Cycle time for commercialization.
Development of algorithms
enabling derivation of useful
Bandwidth sharing wireless
enabling power for life.
Network architecture enabling low
Scaling network size enabling
processing of sensor generated
data at the level of Brontobytes.
Software for TSensors
– E.g., Kalman filter merging data from acceleration, rate, magnetic and pressure
sensors. to improve accuracy and lower processing power.
– E.g., merging data from inertial sensors, GPS and weather service.
– E.g., providing oil location and its quantity based of underground explosions
monitored by millions sensors.
– E.g., collecting and processing 16 bit data from all sensors (e.g., 12) in all cellphones
(e.g., 5 billion) with 100 Hz data rate (3 ZettaBytes/year)
– Processed big data, e.g., you just exceeded your calorie intake for the day; stop
Multiple startups popped to address sensor generated data.
Incentives for TSensors Adoption
Cost reduction of medical care, currently growing out of control.
Insurance companies are already funding development of new technologies potentially reducing
health care cost.
Governments will be doing their share as well.
E.g., IBM‟s Dr. Watson, http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/2019-telemedicine-and-m-healthconvergence-market-shares-strategies-and-forecasts-worldwide-347599.htm).
A recent example could be Massachusetts Life Science Commission funding projects across the state of
Massachusetts universities at $240M, including Personalized Health Monitoring at UMass Amherst at $95M.
Improved quality of medical care and prevention.
We will be personally monitoring our health, enabling us not only to do a better job based on
measured data than doctor‟s office, but also able to detect many problems very early.
This will be a strong incentive for users‟ adoption.
For example, some estimate about 30% of office building HVAC energy cost reduction when smart
HVAC systems are installed, a very short ROI.
As Intel presented last year, about 30% of trillion sensors will be changing our
lifestyles, giving us more fun, thus easy adoption.
Incentives for TSensors Adoption
Many countries already have mandated reduction of pollution of air, water, food,
reduction of energy use, etc.
• E.g., past Governments regulations in automotive industry, drove massive adoption of
sensors improving fuel economy (pressure, flow, exhaust) and safety (acceleration, gyro) and
pollution (pressure, flow, exhaust).
– The compliance will require deployment of smart systems.
Motivations for academia, Governments and industry:
Emergence of very large market.
Challenging problems to solve.
Creation of new jobs.
Acceleration of Abundance.
Accelerating Development through Competition
$2.25M Nokia Sensing XChallenge
Nanobiosym Health Radar won $525,000 Grand Prize award in 2013.
• Enables testing of a drop of blood or saliva with a nanochip inserted into a mobile device. It
detects the presence (or absence) of selected disease's pathogen in real-time, with gold
$120,000 Distinguished Award winners demonstrated game-changing technology:
• Elfi-Tech - Using advanced optics in a device smaller than a penny, non-invasively measures
skin blood flow, velocity, coagulation and vascular health.
• InSilixa - Using blood, saliva or urine, created a single CMOS chip that analyzes proteins
and nucleic acids to detect diseases and health status.
• MoboSens - Water and biofluids can be analyzed rapidly with smartphone-based sensor that
reports on the presence of chemical contaminants and bacteria.
• Owlstone - Using a "digital nose" sensor, can detect the presence of chemicals in
concentrations down to parts per trillion. identifying disease from user's breath or body fluids.
• Silicon BioDevices - Using blood drawn from a small finger stick, sensor diagnoses and
transmits results to mobile devices or electronic medical record (EMR) systems.
Qualcomm‟s $10M Xprize competition to detect 15 most common diseases and
2014 Nokia competitions are still open.
34 teams competing.
TSensorsNext Step: Roadmap
TSensors Summits collected visions for the ultrahigh volume sensor
applications likely to emerge over the next decade.
Conversion of applications into Sensing Platforms
Characterizing technology options for each sensing platforms as TSensors Roadmap.
The Amazing Word of
Sensor Based Products
MEMS Studded Mobile Devices
Samsung Galaxy S4: MEMS usage
leader. Additionally, it has:
• 3 microphones
• Over 30 FBARs filters
Sampler 1: Amazing Sensor Based Products
iSonea personal asthma
Hexoskin‟s sensor-packed Tshirt analyzing movement,
breathing and heart activity
Smart sock from Owlet Baby Care
Breast lumps self-exams
monitors infant‟s quality of sleep, blood (mammogram) sensor from Eclipse
Breast Health Technologies
oxygenation levels, and skin
Preventice „s smart bandage
constantly tracks cardiac ECG and
Fraunhofer‟s glucose, lactate and
cholesterol sensors, pulse oximeter,
and a fluorescence sensor for
Sampler 2: Amazing Sensor Based Products
Nike‟s smart shoe insert with
Ultrasound scanner from
Tatooed sensors from UCSD
Breast cancer killing chip from
Shake stabilized spoon for
Parkinson disease patients from
Mobile Xray station from
Sampler 3: Amazing Sensor Based Products
EKG monitor from AliveCor
Uchek (MIT) detects 25 diseases,
such as diabetes, urinary tract
infections, and pre-clampsia,
levels of glucose, proteins,
ketones, and more.
Lapka can detect radiation
and organicity of food.
Brainwaves driven ears from
Necomimi express your emotional
state before you start talking.
Smart tennis racket from Babolat
MUSE: The Brain-Sensing
Headband that lets you control
things with your mind
Cuffless Blood Pressure Measurement
Sotera Wireless‟ non-invasive
measures continuous blood
pressure, along with pulse
rate, skin temperature,
oxygenation and respiration
rate and temperature.
Cnoga‟s device spectrometrically
measures noninvasively blood
pressure, blood oxygen, and
HealthStats watch measures blood
pressure using applanation
Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring
employs a combination
thermal technologies to
obtain blood glucose
Echo launched a noninvasive continuous
system based on
Biosensors „ approach is
based on electromagnetic
(EIS) and electromagnetic
Cnoga‟s device measures
glucose, heartbeat, skin
resistance, quality of skin
collagen, skin health and
identifies nervous people
based of color change of
RGB lights passing
C8 MediSensors developed
Raman spectroscopy based
glucose sensor, raised $43M in
2012 and closed in 2013 after
finding measurement instability.
Apple hired several of former
Printed Paper Microfluidics
Lab-on-Chip can be multilayer printed
Is low-cost, easy-to-use, disposable,
Promising technology particularly
relevant to improving the healthcare and
disease screening in the no- or low
infrastructure developing world.
Health diagnostics (e.g., urinalysis, saliva
analysis, sputum analysis, pregnancy test, blood
Biochemical analysis (e.g., enzyme activity)
Food quality control
Forensic (e.g., detection of blood)
Blood Testing based on Lab on Chip
Palo Alto startup Theranos rolled out blood testing
(starting with Walgreens in Palo Alto) after
– 1000x reduced blood volume for about 200
• Likely enabled by Lab on Chip with fluorescent
– Providing results in 4 hours
– With increased accuracy.
– At a fraction of lab cost.
Swallowable capsule includes:
Delivery of drugs to treat
digestive tract disorders
directly to the location of the
illness, enables smaller dose,
reducing side effects.
Dogs are trained to detect medical problems
based on breath due to their extreme smell
Low sugar level in diabetics or cancer.
What can be smelled with chemical sensors:
Neonatal jaundice, intestinal distress
Infectious disease (flu)
Source: Dr. J. Stetter, SRI
A new product turns iPod into an alcohol
The $79 accessory plugs into the base of the iPod
and functions like a field sobriety test.
– The person using the iBreath exhales into a
retractable "blow wand"
– Within two seconds, it displays the results on an
– A reading of 0.08 or above sets off an alarm,
signaling a blood-alcohol level above the legal limit
in all 50 states.
• Developed by David Steele Enterprises Inc. in
TI‟s IR Vein Viewer
Displays location of veins for nurses.
MEMS mirror controlled infrared light is converted to visible image through the foil.
Terahertz radiation penetrates fabric, wood, plastic, and even clouds,
but not metal or water.
Skin tumor and breast cancer detection
Wallace et. al, Faraday Discuss. 126 (2004)
Tooth decay detection
Arnone et. al, Physics World, April
Mona Jarrahi , Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center
Finding a Bacteria in Blood
LoC separates bacteria (grey) from human blood
cells (red) for quick identification, while keeping both
sets of cells alive.
Red blood cells and bacteria separate as they are
deflected to different extents by liquid introduced
from a side channel.
The cells' deflection can be tuned to direct particles
of a certain size to specific collection chambers.
LOC isolates bacteria directly without first needing
to culture the samples, a time consuming process.
Red blood cells and bacteria (grey) separate
as they are deflected to different extents by
liquid introduced from a side channel
Soft inertial microfluidics for high throughput separation of bacteria from human blood cells
Zhigang Wu, Ben Willing, Joakim Bjerketorp, Janet K. Jansson and Klas Hjort, Lab Chip, 2009
Multidisciplinary project to integrate carbon
nanotubes (CNT) with a multielectrode array
to develop an new generation of biochips to
repair damaged central nervous system
New CNT-based interface with state-of-theart stimulation of brain-machine is key to
developing all types of neuroprostetics:
Vetoing epileptic attacks
Repairing and enhancing cognitive functions.
Deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients.
Promises "personalized medicine“
Drugs and drug combinations optimized for each individual's unique genetic makeup.
Emerged after the first complete sequencing of human genome in 2001.
– Is considered the next fundamental development in human medicine:
– Promises an era of individualized patient care and personal medicine.
– Uses markers in individuals‟ genetic code to pinpoint underlying causes of disease.
Transforms medicine from prescribing treatment based on patient‟s symptoms,
to therapies based on patient‟s genetics.
Promises to cure diseases rather than alleviate symptoms.
Calorie restricted (CR) starvation diet was
shown to extend many species life span by a
30% to 40%.
Around 2000, several biotech startups were
formed to bring CR benefit with normal diet.
– Transformed the guessing game into drug
– Target to switch ON complex mechanism
embedded in our genomes to postpone and
possibly attenuate myriads of ills brought by
Four Potential Breakthrough Drugs
Rapamycin (derived from Easter Island soil
bacteria): first compound to convincingly
extend live in mammals.
Resveratrol (derived from grape skin):
somewhat less effective than rapamycin.
Metformin (derived from French lilac plant):
Mannoheptulose (derived from avocados): a
sugar with multiple CR like effects in
Compounds capable of regulating key effects
of CR in rodents have come to light.
Soon to be available to humans…
Source: Fortune Magazine, June 14, 2010
Playing the God?
A new form of life has been created in a laboratory!
J. Craig Venter Institute made a piece of DNA that carries about 1,000 genes,
from off-the-shelf laboratory chemicals.
– First creature since the beginning of creatures that has no ancestor.
– What it is, and how it lives, depends entirely on a design put together by and held on
the institute‟s computers.
The first of these artificial creatures showed that it could reproduce on its own:
The age of artificial life has began…
Science Magazine, May 20th, 2010
Future will be more amazing than shown products sampler.
Creating New Future will trigger multiple market Tornados, redefining global
economies and providing room for many new companies.
Byproducts of these Tornados:
Abundance, eliminating major global problems.
Medical diagnostic will become faster, cheaper, portable, wireless… personal.
We will start curing diseases rather than alleviate symptoms.
All of us will live longer and healthier, in less polluted and more energy efficient world.
We will have more fun than ever.
The biggest bull market in history?
The first MEMS/NEMS/Bio Billionaires may emerge…