Behavior is easy to identifyAttitudes take time to understand, long discussion reveals attitudes Mexicans arrive 15 minutes later; courtesy to host to get prepared. Brazilians sometimes an hour or more. Time is second to relationship.Norms: The rules to be followed in specific situations Never plan a dinner in Argentina before 9:00P. Cook wont arrive till 8.Values: What each side believes is important. Priority of values.Lewecki Case p.368
Consider community organizationBusiness venture, or joint 50-50 equity venture. Any differences in choice?Japanese: 84.4= B Singapore= 39.4=BUSA: 37.7=B Taiwanese = Consensual democracy versus adversarial democracy.
Imagine the differences in “opinion” in international JV’s. These are differences in values.LewickiCase p.368
Geert Hofstede analyzed a large data base of employee values scores collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973 covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of GH's work since 2001, scores are listed for 74 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.