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Influencing Visual Judgment through Affective Priming

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Affective priming (positive and negative emotion) is shown to significantly influence accuracy in visual judgment tasks for several common chart types.

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Influencing Visual Judgment through Affective Priming

  1. 1. Lane Harrison, Drew Skau, Steven Franconeri, Aidong Lu, Remco ChangInfluencing Visual Judgmentthrough Affective Priming
  2. 2. Make DecisionsReasonPerceiveDATA
  3. 3. Make DecisionsReasonPerceiveDATAVisualization is also used in moreserious contexts:
  4. 4. What do we know about affect?
  5. 5. Affect influencescreativity.Affect alters how we decideunder uncertainty.Affect modulates visualperception.(Lewis et al., 2011)(Fredrickson, et al., 2005)(Vuilleumier et al., 2007)
  6. 6. How does Emotionimpact graphical perception?
  7. 7. leverage well-studied graphicalperception taskadapt well-studiedemotion-primingtechniquesExperimentcombiningemotion andgraphicalperception.Let`s start withwhat we know...
  8. 8. Position Angle>(Cleveland & McGill,1984)
  9. 9. Cleveland & McGills Results1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0T1T2T3T4T5Log ErrorCrowdsourced ResultsT1T2Useful for visualization designguidelines; heavily replicated.(image: Heer and Bostock, 2009)
  10. 10. 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0T5Log ErrorCrowdsourced Results1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0T1T2T3T4T5T6T7T8T9Log Error(image: Heer and Bostock, 2009)Validated AMT for graphicalperception studies.Heer & Bostock, 2009
  11. 11. A B1000AB1000A B1000ABABtreeABAB1000ABV1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8bar chart(adjacent comparison)bar chart(non-adjacent comparison)horizontal bar chart(adjacent comparison)stacked bar chart(adjacent comparison)pie chart(ordered)pie chart(unordered)bubble charttreemapReplicate Cleveland & McGill!Again!
  12. 12. leverage well-studied graphicalperception taskadapt well-studiedemotion-primingtechniquesExperimentcombiningemotion andgraphicalperception.
  13. 13. How do we induce Emotion?StoriesVisual memory != verbalmemoryCommonly used in web-based studies. (Goeritz., 2007)(Shackman et al., 2006)An excerpt...
  14. 14. No one could say for sure how long she would live, butcontinued hospital care was clearly pointless. Nor couldshe go home: she needed more attention than herfamily could provide...The problem was, she had no place to go. There was ahospice facility near her house, but it would accept heronly if she would die within six days...- Excerpt from Looking for a Place to Die,Theresa Brown
  15. 15. How do we quantify Emotion?How do we induce Emotion?StoriesVisual memory != verbalmemoryCommonly used in web-based studies. (Goeritz., 2007)(Shackman et al., 2006)(Lang et al., 2008, Lewis et al., 2011)9-pointSelf-AssessmentManikin (SAM)
  16. 16. Pilot 2: how effective is thepriming?Pilot 1: is the stimuli valid?Full-study: all 8 chart typesStudy components:
  17. 17. Pilot 1: Validate emotionalcontent of storiesStories selected from theNew York Timesn = 40 on Mechanical TurkSAM given only as post-testSignificant difference in emotion(valence).
  18. 18. Pilot 2: Effectiveness of theprime.Purpose: does priming exposureguarantee a performance impact?n = 234 on Mechanical TurkSAM given as pre- and post- testAbsolute values of SAM aresubjective, but change in SAM-score indicates successfulpriming*
  19. 19. Full-study: 8 chart typesPurpose: test whether affect influencesgraphical perception.Design:- n = 963 on Mechanical Turk- 1 random prime, 1 random chart- 5 perception tasks per participant- between subjectsMeasures:- performance: log-error- subjective: 9-point SAM
  20. 20. Experiment procedure (Full study & Pilot 2)Pre-ValencePre-ArousalPost-ValencePost-ArousalAccuracyVerification QuestionMeasure Emotion Random PrimingThe patient was a fairlyyoung woman and shedhad cancer for as long asher youngest child hadbeen alive...During this past year Ivehad three instances ofcar trouble: a blowout ona freeway, a bunch ofblown fuses and anout-of-gas situation...A B1000AB1000A B1000ABABtreeABAB1000ABRandom ChartV1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8TasksWhich of the two (Aor B) is SMALLER?What percentage isthe SMALLER of theLARGER?Measure Emotion
  21. 21. Full-study: 8 chart typesCleanup:- 299 removed for junk answers- n = 664 total...- n = 207 successfully primedAnalysis:- log absolute errors- 95% confidence-intervalsTwo cases: by priming group (664)and by SAM-change (207)...
  22. 22. Mean of all participants, regardless of final SAM(n = 664):0 1 2 3 4Positively PrimedNegatively PrimedMeans of AllParticipantsNo significant difference in error:t(662) = 1.8318; p = .067
  23. 23. All participants, regardless of final SAM (n =664):A B1000AB1000A B1000ABABtreeABAB1000ABV1V2V3V4V5V6V7V80 1 2 3 4Positively PrimedNegatively Primed
  24. 24. Means of primed participants (n = 207):0 1 2 3 4Positively PrimedNegatively PrimedMeans of PrimedParticipantsSignificant difference in error:t(205) = 3.1560; p = .0018
  25. 25. Primed participants (n = 207):A B1000AB1000A B1000ABABtreeABAB1000ABV1V2V3V4V5V6V7V80 1 2 3 4Positively PrimedNegatively Primed>
  26. 26. Primed participants, (change in SAM):A B1000AB1000A B1000ABABtreeABAB1000ABV1V2V3V4V5V6V7V80 1 2 3 4Positively PrimedNegatively Primed
  27. 27. Expert Discussion:Steven Franconeri, NorthwesternPositive moods can expand thescope of the perceptualspotlight of attention.Encourage an observer toprocess a larger spatial area ofthe world in a single glance.Negative or anxious moods canconstrict this spatial area.(Eriksen & St. James, 1986)(Gasper & Clore, 2002; Rowe et al., 2007)(Eysenck & Calvo, 1992)To summarize...
  28. 28. Emotion plays animportant role invisualization.Emotion influences graphicalperception accuracy.
  29. 29. A B1000AB1000A B1000ABABtreeABAB1000ABV1V2V3V4V5V6V7V80 1 2 3 4Positively PrimedNegatively PrimedLtharri1@uncc.edu @LaneHarrison codementum.orgThanks!co-authors:Drew Skau, StevenFranconeri, Aidong Lu,Remco Changsponsors:National ScienceFoundation,Visual.lycolleagues:Evan Peck, Alvitta OttleyDan Afergan, Jordan Crouser

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