landscape approaches seek to address needs for multiple objectives and outcomes at multiple scales in many different ecological and social settings Photos (clockwise from left): monteverde, ranchlands new jersey, rice in Nepal, rice in hawaii, navarro river basin, agriculture in the azores1
Amongst the diversity, our experience at EcoAgriculture Partners has lead us to identify a few key features of a landscape approach: There are many possible ways to define landscapes, for management purposes it is helpful to define them functionally according to the objectives at hand and the physical extent of the features and processes that mediate these objectives. Precise boundaries are often ambiguous because the various biophysical gradients, socio-cultural attributes, and political jurisdictions found on the land operate at multiple scales and rarely coincide with one another. Thus, landscape approaches incorporate multi-scale linkages, helping to coordinate small-scale management efforts while considering relevant aspects of the landscape’s regional and global context.
We draw on a selection of landscape initiatives to provide food for thought about ways that landscape approaches are similar and different
Conservation cannot be done by working only with a few farmers and in limited land. But when working on a larger scale, farmers also have diversity of wishes and aspirations. A single organization cannot by itself help them achieve all this. So it is important to collaborate and work on a landscape scale, so that development goals don’t conflict with each other but help each other. If there is a common landscape vision, then different stakeholders and organizations can contribute to different components and still move along the same desired development path.Labour shortage, Youth not interested in agriculture.
3 farmers’ organization: BioResources Conservation Movement, Pratigya Co-operative, Rupa Lake Rehabilitation and Fisheries Co-operative14 farmers’ groups17 community forest user groupsOrganizationsLI-BIRD, NARC, DADO, Caritas, Worldvision, USC-Canada, CARE-NepalJaibikShrotSamrachanAbhiyan (Bioresources Conservation Movement) - Fund mobilization, assign reponsibilities to other groups, Monitoring of biodiversity, monitoring of activities.Pratigya - Value addition in local crops, maintain diversity blocks, CBR- buys raw materials (anadi rice, taro, etc.) and value added products from farmersRupa coop - Fisheries, conservation activities in the watershed- 25% of profit is reinvested in conservation activites: 17 CFUGs (same households as in 14 farmers groups), 20 schools, youth clubs, mothers clubsKiDeKi (Farmer to Farmer) - NTFP (fodder and MAPs) nursery and their CBR, bee-keeping and goat rearing training, bee-hive making
Community and Stakeholders tied to a common vision. Commitment from the local governmentMore perennials: fodder and fruit trees
The Namaqualand Wilderness Corridor is a landscape initiative within a biodiversity hotspot in SA: The Succulent Karoo, one of the few arid hotspots, it is well-known for its plant and animal diversity (>6300 plant species and double the endemism of other deserts). The area is threatened by overgrazing, cultivation and mining, while most people live below the poverty line, and are entirely dependent on viable rangelands.Focusing on an important catchment area, we aim to restore range and wetlands, and create jobs in an area stretching from the mountains through farmlands, the Namaqua National Park to the Atlantic Ocean on the west coast. Presently, work focuses on Kamiesberg Uplands (Three Peaks Area), a key biodiversity area of ca. 21 000 ha, while the green area shows the full extent of the desired corridor.
Besides mining and biodiversity-based business, one of the principle interventions has been to enable conservation by people through the Biodiversity & Red Meat Initiative: Ecological monitoring found rangeland and wetlands to be overgrazed and eroded; socioeconomic surveys found farmers reluctant to reduce stock, which they saw as security, and did not rotate stock as they needed to concentrated around the few well points that were not broken, for which they blamed municipalities. As incentives to change, CSA installed 6 hand pumps for water (also troughs, fodder, fences), conducted training (ecological links between rangeland condition and grazing; and is monitoring this long-term, farm management training), negotiates with municipalities and found markets for excess stock. In return, members sign a contract to follow guidelines around stock reduction, wetland management, wildlife friendly stock protection (that does not indiscriminately poison or trap wildlife but instead uses traditional herders, who now have access to technology to track livestock numbers and signs of predators, some use Anatolian guard dogs and other methods), and forming a conservancy.
Formation of a conservancy forming part of the larger priority area and farmers formed their own association, where organization is often the first step to improving productionImproved knowledge of conservation, wetland protection, predator protection…Stock rotation monitored by Ecoherders; additional jobs (compliance officers and EcoherdersIncreased water (after removing alien invasive plants)Additional: More positive attitude to conservation, but some unmet expectations regrading economic situation..
While there are some unifiyingcharaceristics, there is also tremendous diversity in strategies for implementing landscape initaitives.
Objectives● Illustrate diversity in landscape approaches to sustaining agriculture, meeting livelihood needs and maintaining healthy ecosystems● Stimulate learning and networking within our community of landscape practitioners
Features of landscape approaches● Landscape-scale focus on complex management problems● Management of landscapes as complex socio- ecological systems● Management for multiple objectives● Adaptive collaborative management● Management through participatory processes of social learning and multi-stakeholder negotiation
Case studies of landscape initiatives●The Chiquitano Model Forest, Bolivia●Rupa Watershed, Nepal●Namaqualand, South Africa●Conservation in the Cape Winelands, South Africa
The Chiquitano Model Forest Hermes JustinianoFoundation for the Conservation of the Chiquitano Forest (FCBC) Bolivia Bolivia Amazon Brazil Forest Cerrado Andean Pantanal Chaco Paraguay South America
Actors and organizations involvedTaking the lead Beneficiaries● FCBC since year 2000 ● 12 municipal governments and their populationKey partners ● 5 Indigenous Community Lands● Individual municipalities, since 2005 ● Selected communities that harvest wood and non-wood● Commonwealth of Chiquitano forest products Municipalities, since 2008 ● Craftsmen and women● Government of Santa Cruz● Private universities ● A global population of 250.000 inhabitants since 2011
Principal interventions● Strengthening the Model Forest concept and implementation● Land use and occupation plans for municipalities● Land use and resources management for indigenous territories● Creation and strengthening of protected areas● Sustainable forest management● Strengthening of sustainable community enterprises based on forest products● Training and professionalization of local leaders
Impacts so far● 23 Indigenous communities / 1450 families doing Watershed protection from sustainable management forestry and visibly improving their income and areas parks and forestry livelihoods● 7 Municipal Territories (14.5 Million hectares) with approved land use plans, emphasis added in maintenance of ecosystem services, specially water, to ensure human and animal life, agriculture production and long term sustainability● 7 new Municipal Parks created (1.7 Million hectares) for strict protection of watersheds and biodiversity, ensuring water availability for towns and communities● 12 Million hectares of watersheds declared as protected in one or more management levels
Rupa Watershed, Kaski, Nepal Sajal Sthapit, Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD)
Actors and Organizations Involved Jaibik Shrot Samrachan Abhiyan (Bioresources Conservation Movement) KiDeKi Pratigya Co-op Rupa Co-op (Farmer to Farmer) Collect and sell 25% of profits Farmer to farmer value-added reinvested in PES trainings products
Principal Interventions● Awareness and Learning● Strengthening institutions● Participatory planning & implementation of conservation & income generation activities● Developing a collective vision
Namaqualand Wilderness Corridor , South AfricaHeidi Hawkins1, Ronald Newman1, Malinda Gardiner1, Tessa Mildenhall1, Ralph van der Poll1, Elmariza Smith1, Sarah Frazee1, Peter Carrick2 and John Buchanan3 1Conservation South Africa, 2Nurture, Restore, Innovate, 3Conservation International
Namaqualand Wilderness CorridorA landscape initiative within a hotspot Succulent Karoo
Key organizations● Conservation South Africa & CI● Nurture Restore Innovate● Agricultural Research Council● South African National Parks● Municipalities● Communal farmers● Private farmers
Impacts over 2 years…● Stock soldConservancy 100 (518, x2 carrying capacity) 90 2011 Members with knowledge (%)● Stock80 4600 ha of 21 000ha priority area 46 communal and 3 private farmer members rotation monitored 2012 70● Livelihoods improvedformed 60 Own Association (EcoRangers, monitors) 50● Water (26 000L/day) 40 30● Markets for wildlife-friendly meat 20 10● The hope after 5 years: 0 ● improved rangeland condition ● Land stewardship expanded from mountain to sea, for benefit of all
Conservation in the Cape Winelands Russell Galt, ICLEI Nairobi, 6 March 2012
Diversity in landscape management● Problem situations● Ecology and extent● History● Entry points and objectives● Initiators and other actors● Management frameworks and indicators● Expertise● Financial resources● Implementation issues● Impacts
Appreciating diversity of integratedlandscape approaches: group taskTask: Think about landscape initiatives with which you are familiar…● In what important ways are they different?● What do they have in common?● What key ingredients make them work?